Powershell script to gather (Global) Horizon sessions using REST api’s

This ia a rather quick one as I already had some of the basics in my last script to send messages to global sessions. I have created a script that will gather all sessions in a Horizon environment. The global sessions api call has only been available since Horizon 2111 so when trying with an older version of Horizon it will return errors. Because some of the methods I use Powershell 7 is required.

There are 4 arguments:

  1. Credential : Optional credentials object from get-credential (wil ask for credentials if not provided)
  2. ConnectionServerFQDN : name says enough, fqdn for a connection server to connect to
  3. global : switch to enable gathering of all Global sessions
  4. pod_name: name of a single pod to collect all sessions from in case of a CPA

Usage:

.\Horizon_Rest_Get_Sessions.ps1 -Credential $creds -ConnectionServerFQDN "server.domain.dom"

And the other options are

.\Horizon_Rest_Get_Sessions.ps1 -Credential $creds -ConnectionServerFQDN "server.domain.dom" -global
.\Horizon_Rest_Get_Sessions.ps1 -Credential $creds -ConnectionServerFQDN "server.domain.dom" -global -pod_name "podname"

The Script can be found down below or on Github:

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets all (global) sessions for an Horizon environment

    .DESCRIPTION
    This script uses the Horizon rest api's to all gather alls essions in a Horizon (Cloud Pod) environment

    .EXAMPLE
    .\Horizon_Rest_Get_Sessions.ps1 -Credential $creds -ConnectionServerFQDN pod2cbr1.loft.lab

    .EXAMPLE
    .\Horizon_Rest_Get_Sessions.ps1 -Credential $creds -ConnectionServerFQDN pod2cbr1.loft.lab -global

    .EXAMPLE
    .\Horizon_Rest_Get_Sessions.ps1 -Credential $creds -ConnectionServerFQDN pod2cbr1.loft.lab -pod_name "Horizon_pod2"

    .PARAMETER Credential
    Mandatory: No
    Type: PSCredential
    Object with credentials for the connection server with domain\username and password

    .PARAMETER ConnectionServerFQDN
    Mandatory: Yes
    Default: String
    FQDN of the connection server to connect to

    .PARAMETER global
    Mandatory: No
    Switch to select global sessions or only sessions for the local pod (Horizon 2111 and later)

    .PARAMETER pod_name
    Mandatory: No
    String for name of the pod to get sessions for. (Horizon 2111 and later)

    .NOTES
    Created by: Wouter Kursten
    First version: 03-06-2022

    .COMPONENT
    Powershell Core

#>

[CmdletBinding()]
param (
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
    HelpMessage='Credential object as domain\username with password' )]
    [PSCredential] $Credential,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,  HelpMessage='FQDN of the connectionserver' )]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $ConnectionServerFQDN,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
    ParameterSetName="globalsessions",
    HelpMessage='Parameter to select Global Sessions' )]
    [switch] $global,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
    ParameterSetName="globalsessions",
    HelpMessage='Name of the pod to get the sessions for, needs -Global, defaults to *' )]
    [string] $pod_name
)

function Get-HRHeader(){
    param($accessToken)
    return @{
        'Authorization' = 'Bearer ' + $($accessToken.access_token)
        'Content-Type' = "application/json"
    }
}
function Open-HRConnection(){
    param(
        [string] $username,
        [string] $password,
        [string] $domain,
        [string] $url
    )

    $Credentials = New-Object psobject -Property @{
        username = $username
        password = $password
        domain = $domain
    }

    return invoke-restmethod -Method Post -uri "$url/rest/login" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($Credentials | ConvertTo-Json)
}

function Close-HRConnection(){
    param(
        $accessToken,
        $url
    )
    return Invoke-RestMethod -Method post -uri "$url/rest/logout" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($accessToken | ConvertTo-Json)
}

function Get-HorizonRestData(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Array of ordered hashtables' )]
        [array] $filters,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Type of filter Options: And, Or' )]
        [ValidateSet('And','Or')]
        [string] $Filtertype,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Page size, default = 500' )]
        [int] $pagesize = 500,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [string] $RestMethod,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='$True for rest methods that contain pagination and filtering, default = False' )]
        [switch] $filteringandpagination,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="id",
        HelpMessage='To be used with single id based queries like /monitor/v1/connection-servers/{id}' )]
        [string] $id,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        HelpMessage='Extra additions to the query url that comes before the paging/filtering parts like brokering_pod_id=806ca in /rest/inventory/v1/global-sessions?brokering_pod_id=806ca&page=2&size=100' )]
        [string] $urldetails
    )
    
    if($filteringandpagination){
        if ($filters){
            $filterhashtable = [ordered]@{}
            $filterhashtable.add('type',$filtertype)
            $filterhashtable.filters = @()
            foreach($filter in $filters){
                $filterhashtable.filters+=$filter
            }
            $filterflat=$filterhashtable | convertto-json -Compress
            if($urldetails){
                $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?"+$urldetails+"&filter="+$filterflat+"&page="
            }
            else{
                $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?filter="+$filterflat+"&page="
            }
        }
        else{
            if($urldetails){
                $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?"+$urldetails+"&page="
            }
            else{
                $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?page="
            }
        }
        $results = [System.Collections.ArrayList]@()
        $page = 1
        $uri = $urlstart+$page+"&size=$pagesize"

        $response = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
        $response.foreach({$results.add($_)}) | out-null
        if ($responseheader.HAS_MORE_RECORDS -contains "TRUE") {
            do {
                $page++
                $uri = $urlstart+$page+"&size=$pagesize"
                $response = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
                $response.foreach({$results.add($_)}) | out-null
            } until ($responseheader.HAS_MORE_RECORDS -notcontains "TRUE")
        }
    }
    elseif($id){
        $uri= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"/"+$id
        $results = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
    }
    else{
        if($urldetails){
            $uri= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?"+$urldetails
        }
        else{
            $uri= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod
        }

        $results = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
    }

    return $results
}

function get-horizonglobalsessions(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Id of the Local pod to query' )]
        [string] $podid
    )
    try{
        $results=Get-HorizonRestData -ServerURL $url -RestMethod "/inventory/v1/global-sessions" -accessToken $accessToken -urldetails "pod_id=$podid"
    }
    catch{
        throw $_
    }
    return $results
}

function Get-Pods(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken
    )

    try{
        $results=Get-HorizonRestData -ServerURL $url -RestMethod "/federation/v1/pods" -accessToken $accessToken
    }
    catch{
        throw $_
    }
    return $results
}


if($Credential){
    $creds = $credential
}
else{
    $creds = get-credential
}

$ErrorActionPreference = 'Stop'

$username=($creds.username).split("\")[1]
$domain=($creds.username).split("\")[0]
$password=$creds.password

$url = "https://$ConnectionServerFQDN"

$BSTR = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SecureStringToBSTR($password) 
$UnsecurePassword = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAuto($BSTR)

$accessToken = Open-HRConnection -username $username -password $UnsecurePassword -domain $Domain -url $url


if($global){
    $pods=get-pods -accessToken $accessToken -ServerURL $url
    if($pod_name){
        $pod = $pods | Where-Object {$_.name -eq $pod_name}
        $podid=$pod.id
        $sessions = get-horizonglobalsessions -accessToken $accessToken -ServerURL $url -podid $podid -filteringandpagination
        return $sessions
    }
    else{
        $sessions=@()
        foreach ($pod in $pods){
            $podid=$pod.id
            $sessions += get-horizonglobalsessions -accessToken $accessToken -ServerURL $url -podid $podid -filteringandpagination
        }
        return $sessions
    }
}
else{
    $sessions = Get-HorizonRestData -ServerURL $url -RestMethod "/inventory/v1/sessions" -accessToken $accessToken -filteringandpagination
    return $sessions
}

 

Script to send message to all Global Sessions in a Cloud Pod Architecture

So last year I shared a script to send messages to local sessions in a pod regardless of Cloud Pod Architecture being used or not. With Horizon 8 2111 one of the new features is that you can also send messages to Global Sessions in other pods. I have created a script that messages to all those users. I used the same script as base but had to update Get-HorizonRestData to reflect the fact that sometimes some things need to be added to the url like ?pod_id=$podid in this case:

function Get-HorizonRestData(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Array of ordered hashtables' )]
        [array] $filters,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Type of filter Options: And, Or' )]
        [ValidateSet('And','Or')]
        [string] $Filtertype,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Page size, default = 500' )]
        [int] $pagesize = 500,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [string] $RestMethod,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='$True for rest methods that contain pagination and filtering, default = False' )]
        [switch] $filteringandpagination,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="id",
        HelpMessage='To be used with single id based queries like /monitor/v1/connection-servers/{id}' )]
        [string] $id,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        HelpMessage='Extra additions to the query url that comes before the paging/filtering parts like brokering_pod_id=806ca in /rest/inventory/v1/global-sessions?brokering_pod_id=806ca&page=2&size=100' )]
        [string] $urldetails
    )
    
    if($filteringandpagination){
        if ($filters){
            $filterhashtable = [ordered]@{}
            $filterhashtable.add('type',$filtertype)
            $filterhashtable.filters = @()
            foreach($filter in $filters){
                $filterhashtable.filters+=$filter
            }
            $filterflat=$filterhashtable | convertto-json -Compress
            if($urldetails){
                $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?"+$urldetails+"&filter="+$filterflat+"&page="
            }
            else{
                $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?filter="+$filterflat+"&page="
            }
        }
        else{
            if($urldetails){
                $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?"+$urldetails+"&page="
            }
            else{
                $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?page="
            }
        }
        $results = [System.Collections.ArrayList]@()
        $page = 1
        $uri = $urlstart+$page+"&size=$pagesize"
        write-host $uri
        $response = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
        $response.foreach({$results.add($_)}) | out-null
        if ($responseheader.HAS_MORE_RECORDS -contains "TRUE") {
            do {
                $page++
                $uri = $urlstart+$page+"&size=$pagesize"
                $response = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
                $response.foreach({$results.add($_)}) | out-null
            } until ($responseheader.HAS_MORE_RECORDS -notcontains "TRUE")
        }
    }
    elseif($id){
        $uri= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"/"+$id
        $results = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
    }
    else{
        if($urldetails){
            $uri= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?"+$urldetails
        }
        else{
            $uri= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod
        }
        
        $results = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
    }

    return $results
}

I also had to change the get-horizonsessions to get-horizonglobalsessions

function get-horizonglobalsessions(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Id of the Local pod to query' )]
        [string] $podid
    )
    try{
        $results=Get-HorizonRestData -ServerURL $url -RestMethod "/inventory/v1/global-sessions" -accessToken $accessToken -urldetails "pod_id=$podid"
    }
    catch{
        throw $_
    }
    return $results
}

And a new function get-pods

function Get-Pods(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken
    )

    try{
        $results=Get-HorizonRestData -ServerURL $url -RestMethod "/federation/v1/pods" -accessToken $accessToken
    }
    catch{
        throw $_
    }
    return $results
}

while function send-horizongmessage was upgraded to send-horizonglobalmessage

function send-horizonglobalmessage(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [array] $Session_Ids,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $Message,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [validateset("ERROR","WARNING","INFO", IgnoreCase = $false)]
        [string] $Message_Type,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Id of the Local pod to query' )]
        [string] $podid
    )

    $jsonhashtable = [ordered]@{}
    $jsonhashtable.global_session_action_specs=@()
    $sessiondetailshashtable = [ordered]@{}
    $sessiondetailshashtable.ids=$Session_Ids
    $sessiondetailshashtable.pod_id=$podid
    $jsonhashtable.global_session_action_specs+=$sessiondetailshashtable
    $jsonhashtable.message = $message
    $jsonhashtable.message_type = $Message_Type
    $json = $jsonhashtable | convertto-json -depth 100

    try{
        $results = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Post -uri "$ServerURL/rest/inventory/v1/global-sessions/action/send-message" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -body $json
    }
    catch{
        throw $_
    }
    return $results
}

and some other of the runtime pieces also changed

$pods=get-pods -accessToken $accessToken -ServerURL $url

foreach($pod in $pods){
    $podid=$pod.id
    $sessions = get-horizonglobalsessions -accessToken $accessToken -ServerURL $url -podid $podid
    send-horizonglobalmessage -accessToken $accessToken -ServerURL $url -Message_Type $Message_Type -message $message -Session_Ids ($sessions).id -podid $podid
}

And this is how you run it with the output in the vdi desktops

D:\GIT\Various_Scripts\Horizon_send_Global_messages.ps1 -Credential $creds -ConnectionServerFQDN pod1cbr1.loft.lab -message "test vExpert test" -Message_Type ERROR

This is the complete script but it can also be found on Github

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Send a message to all global sessions

    .DESCRIPTION
    This script uses the Horizon rest api's to all global sessions in a horizon cloud pod 

    .EXAMPLE
    .\Horizon_send_Global_messages.ps1 -Credential $creds -ConnectionServerFQDN pod2cbr1.loft.lab -message "test message" -message_type "ERROR"

    .PARAMETER Credential
    Mandatory: No
    Type: PSCredential
    Object with credentials for the connection server with domain\username and password

    .PARAMETER ConnectionServerFQDN
    Mandatory: Yes
    Default: String
    FQDN of the connection server to connect to

    .PARAMETER message
    Mandatory: Yes
    Message to send to the users

    .PARAMETER message_type
    Mandatory: Yes
    Message type: INFO, ERROR or WARNING

    .NOTES
    Created by: Wouter Kursten
    First version: 17-03-2022

    .COMPONENT
    Powershell Core

#>

[CmdletBinding()]
param (
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
    HelpMessage='Credential object as domain\username with password' )]
    [PSCredential] $Credential,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,  HelpMessage='FQDN of the connectionserver' )]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $ConnectionServerFQDN,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
    HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
    [string] $Message,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
    HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
    [validateset("ERROR","WARNING","INFO", IgnoreCase = $false)]
    [string] $Message_Type
)

function Get-HRHeader(){
    param($accessToken)
    return @{
        'Authorization' = 'Bearer ' + $($accessToken.access_token)
        'Content-Type' = "application/json"
    }
}
function Open-HRConnection(){
    param(
        [string] $username,
        [string] $password,
        [string] $domain,
        [string] $url
    )

    $Credentials = New-Object psobject -Property @{
        username = $username
        password = $password
        domain = $domain
    }

    return invoke-restmethod -Method Post -uri "$url/rest/login" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($Credentials | ConvertTo-Json)
}

function Close-HRConnection(){
    param(
        $accessToken,
        $url
    )
    return Invoke-RestMethod -Method post -uri "$url/rest/logout" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($accessToken | ConvertTo-Json)
}

function Get-HorizonRestData(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Array of ordered hashtables' )]
        [array] $filters,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Type of filter Options: And, Or' )]
        [ValidateSet('And','Or')]
        [string] $Filtertype,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Page size, default = 500' )]
        [int] $pagesize = 500,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [string] $RestMethod,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='$True for rest methods that contain pagination and filtering, default = False' )]
        [switch] $filteringandpagination,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="id",
        HelpMessage='To be used with single id based queries like /monitor/v1/connection-servers/{id}' )]
        [string] $id,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        HelpMessage='Extra additions to the query url that comes before the paging/filtering parts like brokering_pod_id=806ca in /rest/inventory/v1/global-sessions?brokering_pod_id=806ca&page=2&size=100' )]
        [string] $urldetails
    )
    
    if($filteringandpagination){
        if ($filters){
            $filterhashtable = [ordered]@{}
            $filterhashtable.add('type',$filtertype)
            $filterhashtable.filters = @()
            foreach($filter in $filters){
                $filterhashtable.filters+=$filter
            }
            $filterflat=$filterhashtable | convertto-json -Compress
            if($urldetails){
                $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?"+$urldetails+"&filter="+$filterflat+"&page="
            }
            else{
                $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?filter="+$filterflat+"&page="
            }
        }
        else{
            if($urldetails){
                $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?"+$urldetails+"&page="
            }
            else{
                $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?page="
            }
        }
        $results = [System.Collections.ArrayList]@()
        $page = 1
        $uri = $urlstart+$page+"&size=$pagesize"
        write-host $uri
        $response = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
        $response.foreach({$results.add($_)}) | out-null
        if ($responseheader.HAS_MORE_RECORDS -contains "TRUE") {
            do {
                $page++
                $uri = $urlstart+$page+"&size=$pagesize"
                $response = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
                $response.foreach({$results.add($_)}) | out-null
            } until ($responseheader.HAS_MORE_RECORDS -notcontains "TRUE")
        }
    }
    elseif($id){
        $uri= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"/"+$id
        $results = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
    }
    else{
        if($urldetails){
            $uri= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?"+$urldetails
        }
        else{
            $uri= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod
        }
        
        $results = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
    }

    return $results
}

function get-horizonglobalsessions(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Id of the Local pod to query' )]
        [string] $podid
    )
    try{
        $results=Get-HorizonRestData -ServerURL $url -RestMethod "/inventory/v1/global-sessions" -accessToken $accessToken -urldetails "pod_id=$podid"
    }
    catch{
        throw $_
    }
    return $results
}

function Get-Pods(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken
    )

    try{
        $results=Get-HorizonRestData -ServerURL $url -RestMethod "/federation/v1/pods" -accessToken $accessToken
    }
    catch{
        throw $_
    }
    return $results
}

function send-horizonglobalmessage(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [array] $Session_Ids,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $Message,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [validateset("ERROR","WARNING","INFO", IgnoreCase = $false)]
        [string] $Message_Type,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Id of the Local pod to query' )]
        [string] $podid
    )

    $jsonhashtable = [ordered]@{}
    $jsonhashtable.global_session_action_specs=@()
    $sessiondetailshashtable = [ordered]@{}
    $sessiondetailshashtable.ids=$Session_Ids
    $sessiondetailshashtable.pod_id=$podid
    $jsonhashtable.global_session_action_specs+=$sessiondetailshashtable
    $jsonhashtable.message = $message
    $jsonhashtable.message_type = $Message_Type
    $json = $jsonhashtable | convertto-json -depth 100

    try{
        $results = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Post -uri "$ServerURL/rest/inventory/v1/global-sessions/action/send-message" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -body $json
    }
    catch{
        throw $_
    }
    return $results
}

if($Credential){
    $creds = $credential
}
else{
    $creds = get-credential
}

$ErrorActionPreference = 'Stop'

$username=($creds.username).split("\")[1]
$domain=($creds.username).split("\")[0]
$password=$creds.password

$url = "https://$ConnectionServerFQDN"

$BSTR = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SecureStringToBSTR($password) 
$UnsecurePassword = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAuto($BSTR)

$accessToken = Open-HRConnection -username $username -password $UnsecurePassword -domain $Domain -url $url

$pods=get-pods -accessToken $accessToken -ServerURL $url

foreach($pod in $pods){
    $podid=$pod.id
    $sessions = get-horizonglobalsessions -accessToken $accessToken -ServerURL $url -podid $podid
    send-horizonglobalmessage -accessToken $accessToken -ServerURL $url -Message_Type $Message_Type -message $message -Session_Ids ($sessions).id -podid $podid
}

 

Powershell script to push a new RDS Farm image

For those of you who haven’t seen my demo last week at the VMUG EUC day I have created a new script that will push a new Golden Image to a RDS farm. The same API call can also be used to schedule a recurring maintenance but that will have to wait for a future post.

What you need to run it are the following parameters:

-Credentials: credentials object from get-credential

-ConnectionServerURL: Full url to the connection server https://pod1cbr01.loft.lab for example

-vCenterURL : Full url to the vCenter Server: https://pod1vcr1.loft.lab

-DataCenterName : name of the Datacenter in vCenter

-BaseVMName : VM name of the new golden image

-BaseSnapShotName : name of the snapshot to be used

-FarmName : name of the RDS farm to push the image to

-StoponError : Boolean $True or $False to stop on error or not. Defaults to $true

-logoff_policy : String in capitals to wait for the users to logoff (WAIT_FOR_LOGOFF) or to forcefully log them off (FORCE_LOGOFF). Defaults to WAIT_FOR_LOGOFF

-Scheduledtime : datetime object for the time to schedule the image push. If not provided it will push the image immediately.

In my Lab I have this RDS Farm:

The last Image push actually failed

And It’s using this Golden Image with the Created by Packer Snapshot

With the following command I will push the new image:

D:\git\Various_Scripts\Horizon_Rest_Push_Image_RDS.ps1 -Credentials $creds -vCenterURL https://pod1vcr1.loft.lab -ConnectionServerURL https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab -DataCenterName Datacenter_Loft -BaseVMName "srv2019-gi-2021-11-12-14-16" -BaseSnapShotName "VM Snapshot 2%2f24%2f2022, 7:02:07 PM" -Scheduledtime ((get-date).adddays(1)) -logoff_policy WAIT_FOR_LOGOFF -StoponError $true -farmname  "Pod01-Farm01"

And you see that it’s pushing the new image for tomorrow ( I am writing this on Thursday)

The script itself looks like this and can be found on my Github:

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Pushes a new Golden Image to a Desktop Pool

    .DESCRIPTION
    This script uses the Horizon rest api's to push a new golden image to a VMware Horizon Desktop Pool

    .EXAMPLE
    .\Horizon_Rest_Push_Image.ps1 -ConnectionServerURL https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab -Credentials $creds -vCenterURL "https://pod1vcr1.loft.lab" -DataCenterName "Datacenter_Loft" -baseVMName "W21h1-2021-09-08-15-48" -BaseSnapShotName "Demo Snapshot" -DesktopPoolName "Pod01-Pool02"

    .PARAMETER Credential
    Mandatory: No
    Type: PSCredential
    Object with credentials for the connection server with domain\username and password. If not supplied the script will ask for user and password.

    .PARAMETER ConnectionServerURL
    Mandatory: Yes
    Default: String
    URL of the connection server to connect to

    .PARAMETER vCenterURL
    Mandatory: Yes
    Username of the user to look for

    .PARAMETER DataCenterName
    Mandatory: Yes
    Domain to look in

    .PARAMETER BaseVMName
    Mandatory: Yes
    Domain to look in

    .PARAMETER BaseSnapShotName
    Mandatory: Yes
    Domain to look in

    .PARAMETER FarmName
    Mandatory: Yes
    Domain to look in

    .PARAMETER StoponError
    Mandatory: No
    Boolean to stop on error or not

    .PARAMETER logoff_policy
    Mandatory: No
    String FORCE_LOGOFF or WAIT_FOR_LOGOFF to set the logoff policy.

    .PARAMETER Scheduledtime
    Mandatory: No
    Time to schedule the image push in [DateTime] format.

    .NOTES
    Minimum required version: VMware Horizon 8 2012
    Created by: Wouter Kursten
    First version: 13-02-2022

    .COMPONENT
    Powershell Core
#>

[CmdletBinding()]
param (
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
    HelpMessage='Credential object as domain\username with password' )]
    [PSCredential] $Credentials,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,  HelpMessage='FQDN of the connectionserver' )]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $ConnectionServerURL,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "URL of the vCenter to look in i.e. https://vcenter.domain.lab")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$vCenterURL,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Name of the Datacenter to look in.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$DataCenterName,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Name of the Golden Image VM.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$BaseVMName,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Name of the Snapshot to use for the Golden Image.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$BaseSnapShotName,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Name of the RDS Farm.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$FarmName,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $false,
    HelpMessage = "True or false for stop on error.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [bool]$StoponError = $true,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $false,
    HelpMessage = "Use WAIT_FOR_LOGOFF or FORCE_LOGOFF.")]
    [ValidateSet('WAIT_FOR_LOGOFF','FORCE_LOGOFF', IgnoreCase = $false)]
    [string]$logoff_policy = "WAIT_FOR_LOGOFF",

    [parameter(Mandatory = $false,
    HelpMessage = "DateTime object for the moment of scheduling the image push.Defaults to immediately")]
    [datetime]$Scheduledtime
)
if($Credentials){
    $username=($credentials.username).split("\")[1]
    $domain=($credentials.username).split("\")[0]
    $password=$credentials.password
}
else{
    $credentials = Get-Credential
    $username=($credentials.username).split("\")[1]
    $domain=($credentials.username).split("\")[0]
    $password=$credentials.password
}

$BSTR = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SecureStringToBSTR($password) 
$UnsecurePassword = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAuto($BSTR)

function Get-HRHeader(){
    param($accessToken)
    return @{
        'Authorization' = 'Bearer ' + $($accessToken.access_token)
        'Content-Type' = "application/json"
    }
}
function Open-HRConnection(){
    param(
        [string] $username,
        [string] $password,
        [string] $domain,
        [string] $url
    )

    $Credentials = New-Object psobject -Property @{
        username = $username
        password = $password
        domain = $domain
    }

    return invoke-restmethod -Method Post -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/login" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($Credentials | ConvertTo-Json)
}
function Close-HRConnection(){
    param(
        $accessToken,
        $ConnectionServerURL
    )
    return Invoke-RestMethod -Method post -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/logout" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($accessToken | ConvertTo-Json)
}

try{
    $accessToken = Open-HRConnection -username $username -password $UnsecurePassword -domain $Domain -url $ConnectionServerURL
}
catch{
    throw "Error Connecting: $_"
}

$vCenters = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/monitor/v2/virtual-centers" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$vcenterid = ($vCenters | where-object {$_.name -like "*$vCenterURL*"}).id
$datacenters = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/external/v1/datacenters?vcenter_id=$vcenterid" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$datacenterid = ($datacenters | where-object {$_.name -eq $DataCenterName}).id
$basevms = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/external/v1/base-vms?datacenter_id=$datacenterid&filter_incompatible_vms=false&vcenter_id=$vcenterid" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$basevmid = ($basevms | where-object {$_.name -eq $baseVMName}).id
$basesnapshots = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/external/v1/base-snapshots?base_vm_id=$basevmid&vcenter_id=$vcenterid" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$basesnapshotid = ($basesnapshots | where-object {$_.name -eq $BaseSnapShotName}).id
$farms = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/inventory/v2/farms" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$farmid = ($farms | where-object {$_.name -eq $FarmName}).id
$startdate = (get-date -UFormat %s)
$datahashtable = [ordered]@{}
$datahashtable.add('logoff_policy',$logoff_policy)
$datahashtable.add('maintenance_mode',"IMMEDIATE")
if($Scheduledtime){
    $starttime = get-date $Scheduledtime
    $epoch = ([DateTimeOffset]$starttime).ToUnixTimeMilliseconds()
    $datahashtable.add('next_scheduled_time',$epoch)
}
$datahashtable.add('parent_vm_id',$basevmid)
$datahashtable.add('snapshot_id',$basesnapshotid)
$datahashtable.add('stop_on_first_error',$StoponError)
$json = $datahashtable | convertto-json
Invoke-RestMethod -Method Post -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/inventory/v1/farms/$farmid/action/schedule-maintenance" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -body $json

 

Sending messages to Horizon Sessions using Powershell & REST api’s

Today I got the question from someone that they where trying to send messages to users but had issues with adding the session id’s to the json. I decided to make a quick and nice script that’s able to send a message to all sessions. This uses the standard functions that I always use, the standard Get-HorizonRestData function that I created in this blog post and two custom functions that I created for this script.

The first new function is get-horizonsessions this function gets all local sessions utilizing the get-horizonrestdata function. As you can see pretty basic nothing fancy about it.

function get-horizonsessions(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken
    )

    try{
        Get-HorizonRestData -ServerURL $url -RestMethod "/inventory/v1/sessions/" -accessToken $accessToken
    }
    catch{
        throw $_
    }
    return $results
}

The second one isn’t that more advanced besides that it has a few more parameters including one called $session_ids that requires an array of the session id’s to where you want to send a message. It creates an ordered hashtable that stores the message, message_type and the array of id’s. This hashtable is than converted to a json file and used as the body for the rest call.

function send-horizonmessage(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [array] $Session_Ids,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $Message,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [validateset("ERROR","WARNING","INFO", IgnoreCase = $false)]
        [string] $Message_Type
    )
    $jsonhashtable = [ordered]@{}
    $jsonhashtable.add('message',$message)
    $jsonhashtable.add('message_type',$Message_Type)
    $jsonhashtable.add('session_ids',$Session_Ids)

    $json = $jsonhashtable | convertto-json
    try{
        $results = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Post -uri "$ServerURL/rest/inventory/v1/sessions/action/send-message" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -body $json
    }
    catch{
        throw $_
    }
    return $results
}

Than I use these 2 lines to actually send the message (after authenticating first, duh). If you want to filter the sessions that can be added to the get-horizonsessions or manually do it on the $sessions array. Be aware that there are no names in this array so you need to gather any of the optional id’s first.

$sessions = get-horizonsessions -accessToken $accessToken -ServerURL $url

send-horizonmessage -accessToken $accessToken -ServerURL $url -Message_Type $Message_Type -message $message -Session_Ids ($sessions).id

And this is how you run the entire script.

.\Horizon_send_messages.ps1 -Credential $credential -ConnectionServerFQDN pod1cbr1.loft.lab -Message "retouw.nl test message" -Message_Type ERROR

And the entire script that’s also available at my Various_Scripts/Horizon_send_messages.ps1 at master · Magneet/Various_Scripts (github.com).

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Send a message to all user sessions

    .DESCRIPTION
    This script uses the Horizon rest api's to all sessions in a horizon pod

    .EXAMPLE
    .\find_user_assigned_desktops.ps1 -Credential $creds -ConnectionServerFQDN pod2cbr1.loft.lab -message "test message" -message_type "ERROR"

    .PARAMETER Credential
    Mandatory: No
    Type: PSCredential
    Object with credentials for the connection server with domain\username and password

    .PARAMETER ConnectionServerFQDN
    Mandatory: Yes
    Default: String
    FQDN of the connection server to connect to

    .PARAMETER message
    Mandatory: Yes
    Message to send to the users

    .PARAMETER message_type
    Mandatory: Yes
    Message type: INFO, ERROR or WARNING

    .NOTES
    Created by: Wouter Kursten
    First version: 23-12-2021

    .COMPONENT
    Powershell Core

#>

[CmdletBinding()]
param (
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
    HelpMessage='Credential object as domain\username with password' )]
    [PSCredential] $Credential,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,  HelpMessage='FQDN of the connectionserver' )]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $ConnectionServerFQDN,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
    HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
    [string] $Message,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
    HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
    [validateset("ERROR","WARNING","INFO", IgnoreCase = $false)]
    [string] $Message_Type
)

function Get-HRHeader(){
    param($accessToken)
    return @{
        'Authorization' = 'Bearer ' + $($accessToken.access_token)
        'Content-Type' = "application/json"
    }
}
function Open-HRConnection(){
    param(
        [string] $username,
        [string] $password,
        [string] $domain,
        [string] $url
    )

    $Credentials = New-Object psobject -Property @{
        username = $username
        password = $password
        domain = $domain
    }

    return invoke-restmethod -Method Post -uri "$url/rest/login" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($Credentials | ConvertTo-Json)
}

function Close-HRConnection(){
    param(
        $accessToken,
        $url
    )
    return Invoke-RestMethod -Method post -uri "$url/rest/logout" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($accessToken | ConvertTo-Json)
}

function Get-HorizonRestData(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Array of ordered hashtables' )]
        [array] $filters,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Type of filter Options: And, Or' )]
        [ValidateSet('And','Or')]
        [string] $Filtertype,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Page size, default = 500' )]
        [int] $pagesize = 500,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [string] $RestMethod,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='$True for rest methods that contain pagination and filtering, default = False' )]
        [switch] $filteringandpagination,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="id",
        HelpMessage='To be used with single id based queries like /monitor/v1/connection-servers/{id}' )]
        [string] $id
    )
    if($filteringandpagination){
        if ($filters){
            $filterhashtable = [ordered]@{}
            $filterhashtable.add('type',$filtertype)
            $filterhashtable.filters = @()
            foreach($filter in $filters){
                $filterhashtable.filters+=$filter
            }
            $filterflat=$filterhashtable | convertto-json -Compress
            $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?filter="+$filterflat+"&page="
        }
        else{
            $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?page="
        }
        $results = [System.Collections.ArrayList]@()
        $page = 1
        $uri = $urlstart+$page+"&size=$pagesize"
        $response = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
        $response.foreach({$results.add($_)}) | out-null
        if ($responseheader.HAS_MORE_RECORDS -contains "TRUE") {
            do {
                $page++
                $uri = $urlstart+$page+"&size=$pagesize"
                $response = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
                $response.foreach({$results.add($_)}) | out-null
            } until ($responseheader.HAS_MORE_RECORDS -notcontains "TRUE")
        }
    }
    elseif($id){
        $uri= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"/"+$id
        $results = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
    }
    else{
        $uri= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod
        $results = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
    }

    return $results
}

function get-horizonsessions(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken
    )

    try{
        Get-HorizonRestData -ServerURL $url -RestMethod "/inventory/v1/sessions/" -accessToken $accessToken
    }
    catch{
        throw $_
    }
    return $results
}

function send-horizonmessage(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [array] $Session_Ids,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $Message,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [validateset("ERROR","WARNING","INFO", IgnoreCase = $false)]
        [string] $Message_Type
    )
    $jsonhashtable = [ordered]@{}
    $jsonhashtable.add('message',$message)
    $jsonhashtable.add('message_type',$Message_Type)
    $jsonhashtable.add('session_ids',$Session_Ids)

    $json = $jsonhashtable | convertto-json
    try{
        $results = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Post -uri "$ServerURL/rest/inventory/v1/sessions/action/send-message" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -body $json
    }
    catch{
        throw $_
    }
    return $results
}

if($Credential){
    $creds = $credential
}
else{
    $creds = get-credential
}

$ErrorActionPreference = 'Stop'

$username=($creds.username).split("\")[1]
$domain=($creds.username).split("\")[0]
$password=$creds.password

$url = "https://$ConnectionServerFQDN"

$BSTR = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SecureStringToBSTR($password) 
$UnsecurePassword = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAuto($BSTR)

$accessToken = Open-HRConnection -username $username -password $UnsecurePassword -domain $Domain -url $url

$sessions = get-horizonsessions -accessToken $accessToken -ServerURL $url

send-horizonmessage -accessToken $accessToken -ServerURL $url -Message_Type $Message_Type -message $message -Session_Ids ($sessions).id

 

 

 

Creating desktop pools using the Horizon REST Api with Powershell

For years people have been asking, when can we start creating Horizon Desktop Pools using REST? The first years the answers was that there was no REST Api at all but since they added REST in 7.10 Horizon the answer was whenever VMware feels like adding this option. With the recent release of Horizon 8 2111 they have finally added the option to do this. I have created a script that uses a json file as base I grabbed this from the api explorer. But the sample below is already edited down so I can create a simple desktop pool. You can grab my version below or here on Github.

{
  "access_group_id": "daef8c91-fa65-4a39-93aa-24d87d5aca94",
  "allow_multiple_user_assignments": false,
  "customization_settings": {
    "ad_container_rdn": "OU=Pool01,OU=VDI,OU=Pod1,OU=VMware,OU=EUC",
    "customization_type": "CLONE_PREP",
    "do_not_power_on_vms_after_creation": false,
    "instant_clone_domain_account_id": "9f83ed94-4d44-4c9a-abd3-ffc23e7389de",
    "reuse_pre_existing_accounts": true
  },
  "description": "Desktop pool description",
  "display_assigned_machine_name": false,
  "display_machine_alias": false,
  "display_name": "instantclonepool",
  "display_protocol_settings": {
    "allow_users_to_choose_protocol": true,
    "default_display_protocol": "BLAST",
    "grid_vgpus_enabled": false,
    "renderer3d": "MANAGE_BY_VSPHERE_CLIENT",
    "session_collaboration_enabled": true
  },
  "enable_client_restrictions": false,
  "enable_provisioning": false,
  "enabled": false,
  "name": "demo_pool",
  "naming_method": "PATTERN",
  "pattern_naming_settings": {
    "max_number_of_machines": 5,
    "naming_pattern": "Pool-{n:fixed=2}",
    "number_of_spare_machines": 1,
    "provisioning_time": "UP_FRONT"
  },
  "provisioning_settings": {
    "add_virtual_tpm": false,
    "base_snapshot_id": "snapshot-1",
    "datacenter_id": "datacenter-1",
    "host_or_cluster_id": "domain-s425",
    "parent_vm_id": "vm-2",
    "resource_pool_id": "resgroup-1",
    "vm_folder_id": "group-v1"
  },
  "session_settings": {
    "allow_multiple_sessions_per_user": false,
    "allow_users_to_reset_machines": true,
    "delete_or_refresh_machine_after_logoff": "DELETE",
    "disconnected_session_timeout_minutes": 5,
    "disconnected_session_timeout_policy": "AFTER",
    "logoff_after_timeout": false,
    "power_policy": "ALWAYS_POWERED_ON",
  },
  "session_type": "DESKTOP",
  "source": "INSTANT_CLONE",
  "stop_provisioning_on_error": false,
  "storage_settings": {
    "datastores": [
      {
        "datastore_id": "datastore-1",
        "sdrs_cluster": false
      },
      {
        "datastore_id": "datastore-1",
        "sdrs_cluster": false
      }
    ],
    "reclaim_vm_disk_space": false,
    "use_separate_datastores_replica_and_os_disks": false,
    "use_vsan": false
  },
  "transparent_page_sharing_scope": "VM",
  "type": "AUTOMATED",
  "user_assignment": "FLOATING",
  "vcenter_id": "f148f3e8-db0e-4abb-9c33-7e5205ccd360"
}

Essentially using only the json file could be enough to create a pool but I decided to create a powershell script that uses the json as a base and where I add functionality to make it more flexible. You cna supply names for things like datacenter, desktop pool name, display name and description & many others. If you want you can hardcode these names or even the id’s if you like but I have only done that in the json for the, access_group_id and the instant_clone_domain_account_id. You can go as crazy as you like and define each and every option as a parameter but I prefer a good base with the things that are changed the most often as parameters.

This is a sample of how I start the script, there is no feedback as the POST command doesn’t give any proper feedback if it ran well. I think the params are clear but you need to be careful to use a Relative Distinguished Name and not a normal Distinguished Name (the DC = parts are missing as you can see). For datastores you need to always need to use an array.

D:\GIT\Various_Scripts\Horizon_Rest_create_Desktop_Pool.ps1 -Credentials $creds -ConnectionServerURL https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab -jsonfile 'D:\homelab\new-pool-rest.json' -vCenterURL pod1vcr1.loft.lab -DataCenterName "Datacenter_Loft" -ClusterName "Dell 620" -BaseVMName "W21h1-2021-11-05-13-00" -BaseSnapShotName "Created by Packer" -DatastoreNames ("vdi-200","vdi-500") -VMFolderPath "/Datacenter_Loft/vm" -DesktopPoolName "Rest_Pool_demo" -DesktopPoolDisplayName "Rest Display name" -DesktopPoolDescription "rest description" -namingmethod "Restdemo{n:fixed=2}" -ADOUrdn "OU=Pool01,OU=VDI,OU=Pod1,OU=VMware,OU=EUC"

this gives this result:

Now the script itself, I am still using the default rest functions and only a slight bit of error handling for checking if the json exists and importing it. For the rest it’s a list of api calls that you (partially) have seen before in other scripts. The datastoressobjects array is filled with separate objects per datastore. The json is converted to a regular array at the beginning so it’s very easy to replace all variables that need replacing. To convert the object to a usable json file you need to change the max depth as this is default only 2 an that’s not enough for this json file. I set it to 100 just to keep things easy. If you want to download the script I would recommend grabbing it from Github.

In a future blog post I will cover adding different VM Networks to the desktop pool. With this json file the default nic of the Golden Image is used.

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Creates a new Golden Image to a Desktop Pool

    .DESCRIPTION
    This script uses the Horizon rest api's to create a new VMware Horizon Desktop Pool

    .EXAMPLE
    Horizon_Rest_create_Desktop_Pool.ps1 -Credentials $creds -ConnectionServerURL https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab -jsonfile 'D:\homelab\new-pool-rest.json' -vCenterURL pod1vcr1.loft.lab -DataCenterName "Datacenter_Loft" -ClusterName "Dell 620" -BaseVMName "W21h1-2021-11-05-13-00" -BaseSnapShotName "Created by Packer" -DatastoreNames  ("vdi-200","vdi-500") -VMFolderPath "/Datacenter_Loft/vm" -DesktopPoolName "Rest_Pool_demo2" -DesktopPoolDisplayName "Rest DIsplay name" -DesktopPoolDescription "rest description" -namingmethod "Rest-{n:fixed=2}" -ADOUrdn "OU=Pool01,OU=VDI,OU=Pod1,OU=VMware,OU=EUC"

    .PARAMETER Credential
    Mandatory: No
    Type: PSCredential
    Object with credentials for the connection server with domain\username and password. If not supplied the script will ask for user and password.

    .PARAMETER ConnectionServerURL
    Mandatory: Yes
    Default: String
    URL of the connection server to connect to

    .PARAMETER vCenterURL
    Mandatory: Yes
    Username of the user to look for

    .PARAMETER DataCenterName
    Mandatory: Yes
    Name of the datacenter

    .PARAMETER BaseVMName
    Mandatory: Yes
    Name of the Golden Image VM

    .PARAMETER BaseSnapShotName
    Mandatory: Yes
    Name of the Golden Image Snapshot

    .PARAMETER DesktopPoolName
    Mandatory: Yes
    Name of the Desktop Pool to ctreate

    .PARAMETER jsonfile
    Mandatory: Yes
    Full path to the JSON file to use as base

    .PARAMETER ClusterName
    Mandatory: Yes
    Name of the vCenter Cluster to place the vm's in

    .PARAMETER DatastoreNames
    Mandatory: Yes
    Array of names of the datastores to use

    .PARAMETER VMFolderPath
    Mandatory: Yes
    Path to the folder where the folder with pool vm's will be placed including the datacenter with forward slashes so /datacenter/folder

    .PARAMETER DesktopPoolDisplayName
    Mandatory: Yes
    Display name of the desktop pool

    .PARAMETER DesktopPoolDescription
    Mandatory: Yes
    Description of the desktop pool

    .PARAMETER NamingMethod
    Mandatory: Yes
    Naming method of the vm's

    .PARAMETER ADOUrdn
    Mandatory: Yes
    Relative Distinguished Name for the OU where the vm's will be placed

    .NOTES
    Minimum required version: VMware Horizon 8 2111
    Created by: Wouter Kursten
    First version: 08-12-2021

    .COMPONENT
    Powershell Core
#>

<#
Copyright © 2021 Wouter Kursten
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the “Software”), to deal in the Software without restriction, 
including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED “AS IS”, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
#>

[CmdletBinding()]
param (
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
    HelpMessage='Credential object as domain\username with password' )]
    [PSCredential] $Credentials,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,  HelpMessage='FQDN of the connectionserver' )]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $ConnectionServerURL,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "URL of the vCenter to look in i.e. https://vcenter.domain.lab")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$vCenterURL,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Name of the Datacenter to look in.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$DataCenterName,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Name of the Golden Image VM.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$BaseVMName,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Name of the Snapshot to use for the Golden Image.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$BaseSnapShotName,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Name of the Desktop Pool.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$DesktopPoolName,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Display Name of the Desktop Pool.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$DesktopPoolDisplayName,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Description of the Desktop Pool.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$DesktopPoolDescription,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Name of the cluster where the Desktop Pool will be placed.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$ClusterName,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Array of names for the datastores where the Desktop will be placed.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [array]$DatastoreNames,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Path to the folder where the folder for the Desktop Pool will be placed i.e. /Datacenter_Loft/vm")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$VMFolderPath,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Relative Distinguished Name for the OU where the vm's will be placed i.e. OU=Pool01,OU=VDI,OU=Pod1,OU=VMware,OU=EUC")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$ADOUrdn,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Naming method for the VDI machines.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$NamingMethod,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Full path to the Json with Desktop Pool details.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$jsonfile
)

try{
    test-path $jsonfile  | out-null
}
catch{
    throw "Json file not found"
}
try{
    $sourcejson = get-content $jsonfile | ConvertFrom-Json
}
catch{
    throw "Error importing json file"
}

if($Credentials){
    $username=($credentials.username).split("\")[1]
    $domain=($credentials.username).split("\")[0]
    $password=$credentials.password
}
else{
    $credentials = Get-Credential
    $username=($credentials.username).split("\")[1]
    $domain=($credentials.username).split("\")[0]
    $password=$credentials.password
}

$BSTR = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SecureStringToBSTR($password) 
$UnsecurePassword = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAuto($BSTR)

function Get-HRHeader(){
    param($accessToken)
    return @{
        'Authorization' = 'Bearer ' + $($accessToken.access_token)
        'Content-Type' = "application/json"
    }
}
function Open-HRConnection(){
    param(
        [string] $username,
        [string] $password,
        [string] $domain,
        [string] $url
    )

    $Credentials = New-Object psobject -Property @{
        username = $username
        password = $password
        domain = $domain
    }

    return invoke-restmethod -Method Post -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/login" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($Credentials | ConvertTo-Json)
}
function Close-HRConnection(){
    param(
        $accessToken,
        $ConnectionServerURL
    )
    return Invoke-RestMethod -Method post -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/logout" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($accessToken | ConvertTo-Json)
}

try{
    $accessToken = Open-HRConnection -username $username -password $UnsecurePassword -domain $Domain -url $ConnectionServerURL
}
catch{
    throw "Error Connecting: $_"
}

$vCenters = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/monitor/v2/virtual-centers" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$vcenterid = ($vCenters | where-object {$_.name -like "*$vCenterURL*"}).id
$datacenters = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/external/v1/datacenters?vcenter_id=$vcenterid" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$datacenterid = ($datacenters | where-object {$_.name -eq $DataCenterName}).id
$clusters = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/external/v1/hosts-or-clusters?datacenter_id=$datacenterid&vcenter_id=$vcenterid" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$clusterid = ($clusters | where-object {$_.details.name -eq $ClusterName}).id
$datastores = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/external/v1/datastores?host_or_cluster_id=$clusterid&vcenter_id=$vcenterid" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$datastoreobjects = @()
foreach ($datastoreName in $DatastoreNames){
    $datastoreid = ($datastores | where-object {$_.name -eq $datastoreName}).id
    [PSCustomObject]$dsobject=[ordered]@{
        datastore_id = $datastoreid
    }
    $datastoreobjects+=$dsobject

}
$resourcepools = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/external/v1/resource-pools?host_or_cluster_id=$clusterid&vcenter_id=$vcenterid" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$resourcepoolid = $resourcepools[0].id
$vmfolders = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/external/v1/vm-folders?datacenter_id=$datacenterid&vcenter_id=$vcenterid" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$vmfolderid = ($vmfolders | where-object {$_.path -eq $VMFolderPath}).id
$basevms = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/external/v1/base-vms?datacenter_id=$datacenterid&filter_incompatible_vms=false&vcenter_id=$vcenterid" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$basevmid = ($basevms | where-object {$_.name -eq $baseVMName}).id
$basesnapshots = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/external/v1/base-snapshots?base_vm_id=$basevmid&vcenter_id=$vcenterid" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$basesnapshotid = ($basesnapshots | where-object {$_.name -eq $BaseSnapShotName}).id
$sourcejson.provisioning_settings.base_snapshot_id = $basesnapshotid
$sourcejson.provisioning_settings.datacenter_id = $datacenterid
$sourcejson.provisioning_settings.host_or_cluster_id = $clusterid
$sourcejson.provisioning_settings.parent_vm_id = $basevmid
$sourcejson.provisioning_settings.vm_folder_id = $vmfolderid
$sourcejson.provisioning_settings.resource_pool_id = $resourcepoolid
$sourcejson.vcenter_id = $vcenterid
$sourcejson.storage_settings.datastores = $datastoreobjects
$sourcejson.name = $DesktopPoolName
$sourcejson.display_name = $DesktopPoolDisplayName
$sourcejson.description = $DesktopPoolDescription
$sourcejson.pattern_naming_settings.naming_pattern = $namingmethod

$json = $sourcejson | convertto-json -Depth 100

try{
    Invoke-RestMethod -Method Post -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/inventory/v1/desktop-pools" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -body $json
}
catch{
    throw $_
}

 

 

Horizon 8 2111 GA: What’s new in the rest api’s?

So just found out that Horizon 8 2111 dropped today and there have been some welcome changes to the rest api’s. Luckily VMware does have these covered by now in THIS kb article.

In short these are the changes:

Inventory : Desktop Pools
Create desktop pool
Update desktop pool
Delete desktop pool
v5 version of List
v5 version of Get
Inventory : Desktop Actions
Validate Installed Applications
Validate VM Names Info
Resume Task on Desktop pool
Pause task on Desktop pool
Inventory : Farms
v3 version of List
v3 version of Get
v2 version of Create
v2 version of Update
Inventory : Farm Actions
Add RDS servers to farm
Remove RDS servers from farm
Schedule Maintenance (and image management schedule maintenance)
Cancel Schedule Maintenance
Validate Installed Applications
Inventory : Global Application Entitlements
v2 version of List
v2 version of Get
Create Global Application Entitlements
Update Global Application Entitlements
Delete Global Application Entitlements
List Compatible Backup Global Application Entitlements
Inventory : Global Desktop Entitlements
version of List
v2 version of Get
Create Global Desktop Entitlements
Update Global Desktop Entitlements
Delete Global Desktop Entitlements
List Compatible Backup Global Desktop Entitlements
Inventory : Global Sessions
List
Disconnect
Logoff
Reset
Restart
Send Message

so finally we’re able to create desktop pools using REST and to push a new image to rds farms. I will make sure to update the Python module ®Soon and create some blog posts on the new options.

[HorizonAPI]Powershell Script to push a new Desktop image using the REST api.

I already blogged about pushing a new image using the Python module for Horizon but I decided it was time to also have a reusable script that is able to push a new image using powershell and the rest api for Horizon. The script that I created has 10(!) arguments of which 6 are required:

  • ConnectionServerURL: https://server.domain.dom
  • vCenterURL: https://vcenter.domain.dom
  • DataCenterName: Name of the datacenter the source VM resides in
  • BaseVMName : name of the source VM
  • BaseSnapShotName: name of the source Snapshot
  • DesktopPoolName: name of the source Desktop Pool to apply the snapshot to

The datacenter name is required as that’s an requirement to grab the Source VM details.

The optional arguments are:

  • Credentials: PSCRedential object (get-credential for example) when not provided it will ask for user and password. The user should also contain the domain i.e. domain\user
  • StoponError: $true or $false depending on if you want to stop on errors, defaults to $true if not provided
  • logoff_policy: Optional WAIT_FOR_LOGOFF or FORCE_LOGOFF depending on the logoff policy you want
  • Scheduledtime: [DateTime] object in case you want to push for the future

The script itself was fairly easy to create, from the api explorer it was easy what id’s I needed and it was a matter of working back so I had all of them. In the end the hardest part was getting the scheduling to work. I used the (standard?) 10 digit epoch that most people use but it turns out that VMware wanted to schedule it very exactly in milliseconds! For the rest I used the well known functions for authentication but not my generic function for filtering or pagination as almost none of the api calls I use in this script support that.

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Pushes a new Golden Image to a Desktop Pool

    .DESCRIPTION
    This script uses the Horizon rest api's to push a new golden image to a VMware Horizon Desktop Pool

    .EXAMPLE
    .\Horizon_Rest_Push_Image.ps1 -ConnectionServerURL https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab -Credentials $creds -vCenterURL "https://pod1vcr1.loft.lab" -DataCenterName "Datacenter_Loft" -baseVMName "W21h1-2021-09-08-15-48" -BaseSnapShotName "Demo Snapshot" -DesktopPoolName "Pod01-Pool02"

    .PARAMETER Credential
    Mandatory: No
    Type: PSCredential
    Object with credentials for the connection server with domain\username and password. If not supplied the script will ask for user and password.

    .PARAMETER ConnectionServerURL
    Mandatory: Yes
    Default: String
    URL of the connection server to connect to

    .PARAMETER vCenterURL
    Mandatory: Yes
    Username of the user to look for

    .PARAMETER DataCenterName
    Mandatory: Yes
    Domain to look in

    .PARAMETER BaseVMName
    Mandatory: Yes
    Domain to look in

    .PARAMETER BaseSnapShotName
    Mandatory: Yes
    Domain to look in

    .PARAMETER DesktopPoolName
    Mandatory: Yes
    Domain to look in

    .PARAMETER StoponError
    Mandatory: No
    Boolean to stop on error or not

    .PARAMETER logoff_policy
    Mandatory: No
    String FORCE_LOGOFF or WAIT_FOR_LOGOFF to set the logoff policy.

    .PARAMETER Scheduledtime
    Mandatory: No
    Time to schedule the image push in [DateTime] format.

    .NOTES
    Minimum required version: VMware Horizon 8 2012
    Created by: Wouter Kursten
    First version: 03-11-2021

    .COMPONENT
    Powershell Core
#>

[CmdletBinding()]
param (
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
    HelpMessage='Credential object as domain\username with password' )]
    [PSCredential] $Credentials,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,  HelpMessage='FQDN of the connectionserver' )]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $ConnectionServerURL,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "URL of the vCenter to look in i.e. https://vcenter.domain.lab")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$vCenterURL,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Name of the Datacenter to look in.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$DataCenterName,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Name of the Golden Image VM.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$BaseVMName,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Name of the Snapshot to use for the Golden Image.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$BaseSnapShotName,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Name of the Desktop Pool.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string]$DesktopPoolName,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $false,
    HelpMessage = "Name of the Desktop Pool.")]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [bool]$StoponError = $true,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $false,
    HelpMessage = "Name of the Desktop Pool.")]
    [ValidateSet('WAIT_FOR_LOGOFF','FORCE_LOGOFF', IgnoreCase = $false)]
    [string]$logoff_policy = "WAIT_FOR_LOGOFF",

    [parameter(Mandatory = $false,
    HelpMessage = "DateTime object for the moment of scheduling the image push.Defaults to immediately")]
    [datetime]$Scheduledtime
)
if($Credentials){
    $username=($credentials.username).split("\")[1]
    $domain=($credentials.username).split("\")[0]
    $password=$credentials.password
}
else{
    $credentials = Get-Credential
    $username=($credentials.username).split("\")[1]
    $domain=($credentials.username).split("\")[0]
    $password=$credentials.password
}

$BSTR = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SecureStringToBSTR($password) 
$UnsecurePassword = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAuto($BSTR)

function Get-HRHeader(){
    param($accessToken)
    return @{
        'Authorization' = 'Bearer ' + $($accessToken.access_token)
        'Content-Type' = "application/json"
    }
}
function Open-HRConnection(){
    param(
        [string] $username,
        [string] $password,
        [string] $domain,
        [string] $url
    )

    $Credentials = New-Object psobject -Property @{
        username = $username
        password = $password
        domain = $domain
    }

    return invoke-restmethod -Method Post -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/login" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($Credentials | ConvertTo-Json)
}
function Close-HRConnection(){
    param(
        $accessToken,
        $ConnectionServerURL
    )
    return Invoke-RestMethod -Method post -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/logout" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($accessToken | ConvertTo-Json)
}

try{
    $accessToken = Open-HRConnection -username $username -password $UnsecurePassword -domain $Domain -url $ConnectionServerURL
}
catch{
    throw "Error Connecting: $_"
}

$vCenters = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/monitor/v2/virtual-centers" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$vcenterid = ($vCenters | where-object {$_.name -like "*$vCenterURL*"}).id
$datacenters = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/external/v1/datacenters?vcenter_id=$vcenterid" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$datacenterid = ($datacenters | where-object {$_.name -eq $DataCenterName}).id
$basevms = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/external/v1/base-vms?datacenter_id=$datacenterid&filter_incompatible_vms=false&vcenter_id=$vcenterid" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$basevmid = ($basevms | where-object {$_.name -eq $baseVMName}).id
$basesnapshots = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/external/v1/base-snapshots?base_vm_id=$basevmid&vcenter_id=$vcenterid" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$basesnapshotid = ($basesnapshots | where-object {$_.name -eq $BaseSnapShotName}).id
$desktoppools = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/inventory/v1/desktop-pools" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$desktoppoolid = ($desktoppools | where-object {$_.name -eq $DesktopPoolName}).id
$startdate = (get-date -UFormat %s)
$datahashtable = [ordered]@{}
$datahashtable.add('logoff_policy',$logoff_policy)
$datahashtable.add('parent_vm_id',$basevmid)
$datahashtable.add('snapshot_id',$basesnapshotid)
if($Scheduledtime){
    $starttime = get-date $Scheduledtime
    $epoch = ([DateTimeOffset]$starttime).ToUnixTimeMilliseconds()
    $datahashtable.add('start_time',$epoch)
}

$datahashtable.add('stop_on_first_error',$StoponError)
$json = $datahashtable | convertto-json
Invoke-RestMethod -Method Post -uri "$ConnectionServerURL/rest/inventory/v1/desktop-pools/$desktoppoolid/action/schedule-push-image" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -body $json

I use it like this for example:

D:\GIT\Various_Scripts\Horizon_Rest_Push_Image.ps1 -ConnectionServerURL https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab -vCenterURL "https://pod1vcr1.loft.lab" -DataCenterName "Datacenter_Loft" -baseVMName "W21h1-2021-09-08-15-48" -BaseSnapShotName "Demo Snapshot" -DesktopPoolName "Pod01-Pool01" -logoff_policy WAIT_FOR_LOGOFF -StoponError $true -Scheduledtime ((get-date).AddMinutes(75))

Except for the question for username and password (in this case) there’s no response

and the push image is scheduled 75 minutes in the future

As always the script itself is also available at Github HERE.

Next time I’ll add more error handling and update the script to also push images to RDS farms 🙂

 

Horizon REST API + Powershell 7: pagination and filtering (with samples)

A while ago Robin Stolpe (Twitter) asked me if it was possible to find what machines a user is assigned to in a Horizon environment. To answer this I first started messing with the soap api’s and had a really hard time to filter for the user id with the various machine related queries. When looking for the assignedUser property this was no problem but this has been deprecated and replaced by assignedUsers because of the added functionality for assigning multiple users to a machine. Instead of becoming too frustrated I decided to switch paths and user Powershell with the rest api’s.

TLDR: I have defined a broadly usable function for just about all Horizon REST GET api calls with or without filtering that also works for GET calls without any additions and for GET calls that require an Id for example. You can scroll down to the bottom to get that function and a script that uses it.

Warning: the sample code in the script & example function require PowerShell 7!

 

Filtering

One of the things I hadn’t done before with these was filtering and pagination in a more useful way than just writing the entire url out. VMware has a guide available for filtering that can be found here. This was a good way to get started but I found it easiest to skip the single searches entirely and always use the And or Or filtering types for chained filtering.

The method I am using to create the filter is to first define an ordered hashtable. Why ordered? The api calls require the Name/value pairs in a certain order and if you just add them to a regular hashtable this order will change.

$filterhashtable = [ordered]@{}

Next I add the first Name/value pair for the filtertype, this is either And or Or

$filterhashtable.add('type', 'And')

Next I add another pair with name filters and value an array. I could use .add again or just set the name like I do here:

$filterhashtable.filters = @()

The filters name array members again need to be ordered hashtable’s (as you can see I search for a user here)

$userfilter= [ordered]@{}
$userfilter.add('type','Equals')
$userfilter.add('name','name')
$userfilter.add('value',$User)

$domainfilter= [ordered]@{}
$domainfilter.add('type','Equals')
$domainfilter.add('name','domain')
$domainfilter.add('value',$Domain)

and I add both of them to the filters object

$filterhashtable.filters+=$userfilter
$filterhashtable.filters+=$domainfilter

and lets’s show what’s in the $filterhashtable

To be able to use this within the invoke-restmethod url I need to convert this to json and compress it to a single line

$filterflat = $filterhashtable | ConvertTo-Json -Compress
$filterflat

Pagination

For the pagination I needed the HAS_MORE_RECORDS property of the returned headers. If this is TRUE there are more records to be found, sadly this is not available in the classic invoke-restmethod from Powershell v5. With Powershell 7 you can add -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader to store the headers in a variable called $responseheader. With this variable you can easily create a do while loop.

$urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?page="
$results = [System.Collections.ArrayList]@()
$page = 1
$uri = $urlstart+$page+"&size=$pagesize"
$response = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
$response.foreach({$results.add($_)}) | out-null
if ($responseheader.HAS_MORE_RECORDS -contains "TRUE") {
    do {
        $page++
        $uri = $urlstart+$page+"&size=$pagesize"
        $response = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
        $response.foreach({$results.add($_)}) | out-null
    } until ($responseheader.HAS_MORE_RECORDS -notcontains "TRUE")
}
return $results

Please be advised that without some additional parameters this code isn’t usable yet, scroll down for something you can really use.

[sta_anchor id=”function” /]

The function

To combine the above 2 items I have created a function that can use all of the above but is also able to do regular get calls and get calls that require an id in the url.

function Get-HorizonRestData(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Array of ordered hashtables' )]
        [array] $filters,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Type of filter Options: And, Or' )]
        [ValidateSet('And','Or')]
        [string] $Filtertype,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Page size, default = 500' )]
        [int] $pagesize = 500,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /rest/external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [string] $RestMethod,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /rest/external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='$True for rest methods that contain pagination and filtering, default = False' )]
        [switch] $filteringandpagination,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="id",
        HelpMessage='To be used with single id based queries like /monitor/v1/connection-servers/{id}' )]
        [string] $id
    )
    if($filteringandpagination){
        if ($filters){
            $filterhashtable = [ordered]@{}
            $filterhashtable.add('type',$filtertype)
            $filterhashtable.filters = @()
            foreach($filter in $filters){
                $filterhashtable.filters+=$filter
            }
            $filterflat=$filterhashtable | convertto-json -Compress
            $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?filter="+$filterflat+"&page="
        }
        else{
            $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?page="
        }
        $results = [System.Collections.ArrayList]@()
        $page = 1
        $uri = $urlstart+$page+"&size=$pagesize"
        $response = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
        $response.foreach({$results.add($_)}) | out-null
        if ($responseheader.HAS_MORE_RECORDS -contains "TRUE") {
            do {
                $page++
                $uri = $urlstart+$page+"&size=$pagesize"
                $response = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
                $response.foreach({$results.add($_)}) | out-null
            } until ($responseheader.HAS_MORE_RECORDS -notcontains "TRUE")
        }
    }
    elseif($id){
        $uri= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"/"+$id
        $results = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
    }
    else{
        $uri= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod
        $results = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
    }

    return $results
}

As you can see there are several arguments:

  • ServerURL
    • This is the url to the connection server i.e. https://server.domain
  • Filters
    • An Array of ordered hashtables as you can find in the filtering paragraph
  • filtertype
    • Sets the filter type, this needs to be And or Or
  • PageSize
    • This is optional if you want to change from the default 500 results that I have set
  • RestMethod
    • This is the RestMethod that you can copy from the Swagger URL or API Explorer.
  • AccessToken
    • This is the accesstoken you get as a result when using open-hrconnection from previous samples to authenticate (see the sample script below)
  • Filteringandpagination
    • Add this argument to use the filtering and/or pagination options
  • Id
    • Use this for REST API Get calls where an Id is required in the URI

Examples

some usable examples would be:

Get-HorizonRestData -ServerURL $url -RestMethod "/monitor/connection-servers" -accessToken $accessToken 
Get-HorizonRestData -ServerURL $url -RestMethod "/monitor/connection-servers" -accessToken $accessToken -id $connectionserverid
Get-HorizonRestData -ServerURL $url -filteringandpagination -Filtertype "And" -filters $machinefilters -RestMethod "/inventory/v1/machines" -accessToken $accessToken

[sta_anchor id=”script” /]

Sample Script

The script below (and available on Github here) aks for credentials if you don’t supply the object, connectionserver FQDN (no url needed), user and domain to search for and returns an array of machines the user is assigned to. It uses the default functions Andrew Morgan created a long time ago and my function to use the get methods.

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Retreives all machines a user is assigned to

    .DESCRIPTION
    This script uses the Horizon rest api's to query the Horizon database for all machines a user is assigned to.

    .EXAMPLE
    .\find_user_assigned_desktops.ps1 -Credential $creds -ConnectionServerFQDN pod2cbr1.loft.lab -UserName "User2"

    .PARAMETER Credential
    Mandatory: No
    Type: PSCredential
    Object with credentials for the connection server with domain\username and password

    .PARAMETER ConnectionServerFQDN
    Mandatory: Yes
    Default: String
    FQDN of the connection server to connect to

    .PARAMETER User
    Mandatory: Yes
    Username of the user to look for

    .PARAMETER Domain
    Mandatory: Yes
    Domain to look in

    .NOTES
    Created by: Wouter Kursten
    First version: 02-10-2021

    .COMPONENT
    Powershell Core

#>

[CmdletBinding()]
param (
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
    HelpMessage='Credential object as domain\username with password' )]
    [PSCredential] $Credential,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,  HelpMessage='FQDN of the connectionserver' )]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $ConnectionServerFQDN,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Username of the user to look for.")]
    [string]$User = $false,

    [parameter(Mandatory = $true,
    HelpMessage = "Domain where the user object exists.")]
    [string]$Domain = $false
)

function Get-HRHeader(){
    param($accessToken)
    return @{
        'Authorization' = 'Bearer ' + $($accessToken.access_token)
        'Content-Type' = "application/json"
    }
}
function Open-HRConnection(){
    param(
        [string] $username,
        [string] $password,
        [string] $domain,
        [string] $url
    )

    $Credentials = New-Object psobject -Property @{
        username = $username
        password = $password
        domain = $domain
    }

    return invoke-restmethod -Method Post -uri "$url/rest/login" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($Credentials | ConvertTo-Json)
}

function Close-HRConnection(){
    param(
        $accessToken,
        $url
    )
    return Invoke-RestMethod -Method post -uri "$url/rest/logout" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($accessToken | ConvertTo-Json)
}

function Get-HorizonRestData(){
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParametersetName='None')] 
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='url to the server i.e. https://pod1cbr1.loft.lab' )]
        [string] $ServerURL,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Array of ordered hashtables' )]
        [array] $filters,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Type of filter Options: And, Or' )]
        [ValidateSet('And','Or')]
        [string] $Filtertype,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='Page size, default = 500' )]
        [int] $pagesize = 500,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [string] $RestMethod,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,
        HelpMessage='Part after the url in the swagger UI i.e. /external/v1/ad-users-or-groups' )]
        [PSCustomObject] $accessToken,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="filteringandpagination",
        HelpMessage='$True for rest methods that contain pagination and filtering, default = False' )]
        [switch] $filteringandpagination,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
        ParameterSetName="id",
        HelpMessage='To be used with single id based queries like /monitor/v1/connection-servers/{id}' )]
        [string] $id
    )
    if($filteringandpagination){
        if ($filters){
            $filterhashtable = [ordered]@{}
            $filterhashtable.add('type',$filtertype)
            $filterhashtable.filters = @()
            foreach($filter in $filters){
                $filterhashtable.filters+=$filter
            }
            $filterflat=$filterhashtable | convertto-json -Compress
            $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?filter="+$filterflat+"&page="
        }
        else{
            $urlstart= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"?page="
        }
        $results = [System.Collections.ArrayList]@()
        $page = 1
        $uri = $urlstart+$page+"&size=$pagesize"
        $response = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
        $response.foreach({$results.add($_)}) | out-null
        if ($responseheader.HAS_MORE_RECORDS -contains "TRUE") {
            do {
                $page++
                $uri = $urlstart+$page+"&size=$pagesize"
                $response = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
                $response.foreach({$results.add($_)}) | out-null
            } until ($responseheader.HAS_MORE_RECORDS -notcontains "TRUE")
        }
    }
    elseif($id){
        $uri= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod+"/"+$id
        $results = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
    }
    else{
        $uri= $ServerURL+"/rest/"+$RestMethod
        $results = Invoke-RestMethod $uri -Method 'GET' -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -ResponseHeadersVariable responseheader
    }

    return $results
}

if($Credential){
    $creds = $credential
}
else{
    $creds = get-credential
}

$ErrorActionPreference = 'Stop'

$username=($creds.username).split("\")[1]
$domain=($creds.username).split("\")[0]
$password=$creds.password

$url = "https://$ConnectionServerFQDN"

$BSTR = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SecureStringToBSTR($password) 
$UnsecurePassword = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAuto($BSTR)

$accessToken = Open-HRConnection -username $username -password $UnsecurePassword -domain $Domain -url $url

$userfilters = @()
$userfilter= [ordered]@{}
$userfilter.add('type','Equals')
$userfilter.add('name','name')
$userfilter.add('value',$User)
$userfilters+=$userfilter
$domainfilter= [ordered]@{}
$domainfilter.add('type','Equals')
$domainfilter.add('name','domain')
$domainfilter.add('value',$Domain)
$userfilters+=$domainfilter

$userobject = Get-HorizonRestData -ServerURL $url -filteringandpagination -Filtertype "And" -filters $userfilters -RestMethod "/external/v1/ad-users-or-groups" -accessToken $accessToken

$machinefilters = @()
$machinefilter= [ordered]@{}
$machinefilter.add('type','Contains')
$machinefilter.add('name','user_ids')
$machinefilter.add('value',($userobject).id)
$machinefilters+=$machinefilter
$machines = Get-HorizonRestData -ServerURL $url -filteringandpagination -Filtertype "And" -filters $machinefilters -RestMethod "/inventory/v1/machines" -accessToken $accessToken

return $machines

I use it like this to only display the machine names

(D:\GIT\Scripts\find_user_assigned_desktops.ps1 -Credential $creds -ConnectionServerFQDN "pod1cbr1.loft.lab" -User "user1" -Domain "loft.lab").name

You see some names in the 2*** range double but that is a Desktop Pool with Multiple Assignments

Getting the full machine objects is also possible

D:\GIT\Scripts\find_user_assigned_desktops.ps1 -Credential $creds -ConnectionServerFQDN "pod1cbr1.loft.lab" -User "m_wouter" -Domain "loft.lab"

Getting Session information using the Python Module for VMware Horizon with filtering

Since Horizon 8 it is possible to retrieve session information using the REST api’s. In the python module for Horizon I have translated that functionality to the get_sessions function.

import requests, getpass, urllib, json

import vmware_horizon

requests.packages.urllib3.disable_warnings()
url = input("URL\n")

username = input("Username\n")

domain = input("Domain\n")

pw = getpass.getpass()

hvconnectionobj = vmware_horizon.Connection(username = username,domain = domain,password = pw,url = url)
hvconnectionobj.hv_connect()
print("connected")

inventory=vmware_horizon.Inventory(url=hvconnectionobj.url, access_token=hvconnectionobj.access_token)
sessions = inventory.get_sessions()
for i in sessions:
    for ii in i:
        print(ii, '=', i[ii] )


end=hvconnectionobj.hv_disconnect()
print(end)

You see a lot of the information is returned using an id but there are plenty of functions that you can use to get the readable information for those.

Since Horizon 2103 VMware has added an option use filtering when getting session information. In the example above you can see that I have a connected and a disconnected session, let’s get the connected one. First I create the filter.

filter = {}
filter["type"] = "And"
filter["filters"] = []
filter1={}

filter1["type"] = "Equals"
filter1["name"] = "session_state"
filter1["value"] = "CONNECTED"

filter["filters"].append(filter1)

Next I run the action with the filter argument.

sessions = inventory.get_sessions(filter=filter)

And now you see only the connected one is returned

And when I switch to disconnected

The new python module has been pushed to github together with example scripts for retrieving all sessions and with filtering.

Creating a RDS farm using the Python module for VMware Horizon

One of the goals and hopes I had with my 100DaysOfCode (I am writing this on day 100!) was that the Horizon REST api’s to create desktop pools and RDS farms would have been available at the end. Only half of that came out and with Horizon 8 2103 we can finally create a RDS farm using those rest api’s. I have decided to add this to the Python module based on a dictionary that the user sends to the new_farm method. I could still add a fully fetched function but that would require a lot of arguments and using **kwargs is an option but than the user would still need to find out what to use.

First I will need to know what json data I actually need, let’s have a look at the api explorer page to get a grip on this

{
  "access_group_id": "6fd4638a-381f-4518-aed6-042aa3d9f14c",
  "automated_farm_settings": {
    "customization_settings": {
      "ad_container_rdn": "CN=Computers",
      "cloneprep_customization_settings": {
        "post_synchronization_script_name": "cloneprep_postsync_script",
        "post_synchronization_script_parameters": "p1 p2 p3",
        "power_off_script_name": "cloneprep_poweroff_script",
        "power_off_script_parameters": "p1 p2 p3",
        "priming_computer_account": "a219420d-4799-4517-8f78-39c74c7c4efc"
      },
      "instant_clone_domain_account_id": "6f85b3a5-e7d0-4ad6-a1e3-37168dd1ed51",
      "reuse_pre_existing_accounts": false
    },
    "enable_provisioning": true,
    "max_session_type": "LIMITED",
    "max_sessions": 50,
    "min_ready_vms": 0,
    "nics": [
      {
        "network_interface_card_id": "c9896e51-48a2-4d82-ae9e-a0246981b473",
        "network_label_assignment_specs": [
          {
            "enabled": true,
            "max_label": 1,
            "max_label_type": "LIMITED",
            "network_label_name": "vm-network"
          }
        ]
      }
    ],
    "pattern_naming_settings": {
      "max_number_of_rds_servers": 5,
      "naming_pattern": "vm-{n}-sales"
    },
    "provisioning_settings": {
      "base_snapshot_id": "snapshot-1",
      "datacenter_id": "datacenter-1",
      "host_or_cluster_id": "domain-s425",
      "im_stream_id": "6f85b3a5-e7d0-4ad6-a1e3-37168dd1ed51",
      "im_tag_id": "3d45b3a5-e7d0-4ad6-a1e3-37168dd1ed51",
      "parent_vm_id": "vm-2",
      "resource_pool_id": "resgroup-1",
      "vm_folder_id": "group-v1"
    },
    "stop_provisioning_on_error": true,
    "storage_settings": {
      "datastores": [
        {
          "datastore_id": "datastore-1"
        }
      ],
      "replica_disk_datastore_id": "datastore-1",
      "use_separate_datastores_replica_and_os_disks": false,
      "use_view_storage_accelerator": false,
      "use_vsan": false
    },
    "transparent_page_sharing_scope": "VM",
    "vcenter_id": "f148f3e8-db0e-4abb-9c33-7e5205ccd360"
  },
  "description": "Farm Description",
  "display_name": "ManualFarm",
  "display_protocol_settings": {
    "allow_users_to_choose_protocol": true,
    "default_display_protocol": "PCOIP",
    "grid_vgpus_enabled": true,
    "session_collaboration_enabled": false
  },
  "enabled": true,
  "load_balancer_settings": {
    "cpu_threshold": 10,
    "disk_queue_length_threshold": 15,
    "disk_read_latency_threshold": 10,
    "disk_write_latency_threshold": 15,
    "include_session_count": true,
    "memory_threshold": 10
  },
  "name": "ManualFarm",
  "rds_server_ids": [
    "5134796a-322g-5fe5-343f-4daa5d25ebfe",
    "2a43f96c-102b-4ed3-953f-35deg43d43b0ge"
  ],
  "server_error_threshold": 0,
  "session_settings": {
    "disconnected_session_timeout_minutes": 5,
    "disconnected_session_timeout_policy": "NEVER",
    "empty_session_timeout_minutes": 5,
    "empty_session_timeout_policy": "AFTER",
    "logoff_after_timeout": false,
    "pre_launch_session_timeout_minutes": 10,
    "pre_launch_session_timeout_policy": "AFTER"
  },
  "type": "MANUAL",
  "use_custom_script_for_load_balancing": false
}

This also includes some that are not required so for my own farm I settled with this json. This is for an Instant Clone farm.

{
    "access_group_id": "6fd4638a-381f-4518-aed6-042aa3d9f14c",
    "automated_farm_settings": {
        "customization_settings": {
            "ad_container_rdn": "OU=Pod1,OU=RDS,OU=VMware,OU=EUC",
            "instant_clone_domain_account_id": "6f85b3a5-e7d0-4ad6-a1e3-37168dd1ed51",
            "reuse_pre_existing_accounts": true
        },
        "enable_provisioning": false,
        "max_session_type": "LIMITED",
        "max_sessions": 50,
        "min_ready_vms": 1,
        "pattern_naming_settings": {
            "max_number_of_rds_servers": 2,
            "naming_pattern": "vm-{n}-sales"
        },
        "provisioning_settings": {
            "base_snapshot_id": "snapshot-1",
            "datacenter_id": "datacenter-1",
            "host_or_cluster_id": "domain-s425",
            "parent_vm_id": "vm-2",
            "resource_pool_id": "resgroup-1",
            "vm_folder_id": "group-v1"
        },
        "stop_provisioning_on_error": true,
        "storage_settings": {
            "datastores": [
                {
                    "datastore_id": "datastore-1"
                }
            ],
            "use_separate_datastores_replica_and_os_disks": false,
            "use_view_storage_accelerator": false,
            "use_vsan": false
        },
        "transparent_page_sharing_scope": "VM",
        "vcenter_id": "f148f3e8-db0e-4abb-9c33-7e5205ccd360"
    },
    "description": "demo_farm",
    "display_name": "demo_farm",
    "display_protocol_settings": {
        "allow_users_to_choose_protocol": true,
        "default_display_protocol": "BLAST",
        "grid_vgpus_enabled": false,
        "session_collaboration_enabled": true
    },
    "enabled": false,
    "load_balancer_settings": {
        "cpu_threshold": 10,
        "disk_queue_length_threshold": 15,
        "disk_read_latency_threshold": 10,
        "disk_write_latency_threshold": 15,
        "include_session_count": true,
        "memory_threshold": 10
    },
    "name": "demo_farm",
    "server_error_threshold": 0,
    "session_settings": {
        "disconnected_session_timeout_minutes": 5,
        "disconnected_session_timeout_policy": "NEVER",
        "empty_session_timeout_minutes": 5,
        "empty_session_timeout_policy": "AFTER",
        "logoff_after_timeout": false,
        "pre_launch_session_timeout_minutes": 10,
        "pre_launch_session_timeout_policy": "AFTER"
    },
    "type": "AUTOMATED",
    "use_custom_script_for_load_balancing": false
}

As said I send a dictionary to the method so let’s import data into a dict called data and I will print it to screen. The dictionary needs to follow this specific order of lines so that’s why a json is very useful to start with.

with open('/mnt/d/homelab/farm.json') as f:
    data = json.load(f)

As you can see in both the json and the output there’s a lot of things we can change and some things that we need to change lik id’s for all the components like vCenter, base vm, base snapshot and more. First I need the access_group_id this can be retreived using the get_local_access_groups method. For all of these I will also set the variable in the dictionary that we need.

local_access_group = next(item for item in (config.get_local_access_groups()) if item["name"] == "Root")
data["access_group_id"] = local_access_group["id"]

Than it’s time for the Instant Clone Admin id

ic_domain_account = next(item for item in (config.get_ic_domain_accounts()) if item["username"] == "administrator")
data["automated_farm_settings"]["customization_settings"]["instant_clone_domain_account_id"] = ic_domain_account["id"]

For the basevm and snapshot id’s I used the same method but a bit differently as I had already used this method in another script

vcenters = monitor.virtual_centers()
vcid = vcenters[0]["id"]
dcs = external.get_datacenters(vcenter_id=vcid)
dcid = dcs[0]["id"]

base_vms = external.get_base_vms(vcenter_id=vcid,datacenter_id=dcid,filter_incompatible_vms=True)

base_vm = next(item for item in base_vms if item["name"] == "srv2019-p1-2020-10-13-08-44")
basevmid=base_vm["id"]

base_snapshots = external.get_base_snapshots(vcenter_id=vcid, base_vm_id=base_vm["id"])

base_snapshot = next(item for item in base_snapshots if item["name"] == "Created by Packer")

snapid=base_snapshot["id"]
data["automated_farm_settings"]["provisioning_settings"]["base_snapshot_id"] = snapid
data["automated_farm_settings"]["provisioning_settings"]["parent_vm_id"] = basevmid

Host or cluster id

host_or_clusters = external.get_hosts_or_clusters(vcenter_id=vcid, datacenter_id=dcid)
for i in host_or_clusters:
    if (i["details"]["name"]) == "Cluster_Pod1":
        host_or_cluster = i
data["automated_farm_settings"]["provisioning_settings"]["host_or_cluster_id"] = host_or_cluster["id"]

Resource Pool

resource_pools = external.get_resource_pools(vcenter_id=vcid, host_or_cluster_id=host_or_cluster["id"])
for i in resource_pools:
    # print(i)
    if (i["type"] == "CLUSTER"):
        resource_pool = i
data["automated_farm_settings"]["provisioning_settings"]["resource_pool_id"] = resource_pool["id"]

VM folder again is a bit different as I have to get the id from one of the children objects

vm_folders = external.get_vm_folders(vcenter_id=vcid, datacenter_id=dcid)
for i in vm_folders:
    children=(i["children"])
    for ii in children:
        # print(ii["name"])
        if (ii["name"]) == "Pod1":
            vm_folder = i
data["automated_farm_settings"]["provisioning_settings"]["vm_folder_id"] = vm_folder["id"]

Datacenter and vcenter id’s I already had to grab for the base vm and base snapshot so I can just add them

data["automated_farm_settings"]["provisioning_settings"]["datacenter_id"] = dcid
data["automated_farm_settings"]["vcenter_id"] = vcid

Datastores is a bit more funky as there can be multiple so I needed to create a list first and than populate that based on the name of the datastores I have.

datastore_list = []
datastores = external.get_datastores(vcenter_id=vcid, host_or_cluster_id=host_or_cluster["id"])
for i in datastores:
    # print(i)
    if (i["name"] == "VDI-500") or i["name"] == "VDI-200":
        ds = {}
        ds["datastore_id"] = i["id"]
        datastore_list.append(ds)
data["automated_farm_settings"]["storage_settings"]["datastores"] = datastore_list

For my final script I put them in a bit different order and I decided to change a whole lot more options but if you have your json perfected this shouldn’t always be required. Also take note that for true/false in the json that I use the True/False from python.

import requests, getpass, urllib, json

import vmware_horizon

requests.packages.urllib3.disable_warnings()
url = input("URL\n")

username = input("Username\n")

domain = input("Domain\n")

pw = getpass.getpass()

hvconnectionobj = vmware_horizon.Connection(username = username,domain = domain,password = pw,url = url)
hvconnectionobj.hv_connect()
print("connected")

monitor = obj=vmware_horizon.Monitor(url=hvconnectionobj.url, access_token=hvconnectionobj.access_token)
external=vmware_horizon.External(url=hvconnectionobj.url, access_token=hvconnectionobj.access_token)
inventory=vmware_horizon.Inventory(url=hvconnectionobj.url, access_token=hvconnectionobj.access_token)
config=vmware_horizon.Config(url=hvconnectionobj.url, access_token=hvconnectionobj.access_token)

with open('/mnt/d/homelab/farm.json') as f:
    data = json.load(f)

vcenters = monitor.virtual_centers()
vcid = vcenters[0]["id"]
dcs = external.get_datacenters(vcenter_id=vcid)
dcid = dcs[0]["id"]

base_vms = external.get_base_vms(vcenter_id=vcid,datacenter_id=dcid,filter_incompatible_vms=True)

base_vm = next(item for item in base_vms if item["name"] == "srv2019-p1-2020-10-13-08-44")
basevmid=base_vm["id"]

base_snapshots = external.get_base_snapshots(vcenter_id=vcid, base_vm_id=base_vm["id"])

base_snapshot = next(item for item in base_snapshots if item["name"] == "Created by Packer")

snapid=base_snapshot["id"]

host_or_clusters = external.get_hosts_or_clusters(vcenter_id=vcid, datacenter_id=dcid)
for i in host_or_clusters:
    if (i["details"]["name"]) == "Cluster_Pod1":
        host_or_cluster = i

resource_pools = external.get_resource_pools(vcenter_id=vcid, host_or_cluster_id=host_or_cluster["id"])
for i in resource_pools:
    # print(i)
    if (i["type"] == "CLUSTER"):
        resource_pool = i

vm_folders = external.get_vm_folders(vcenter_id=vcid, datacenter_id=dcid)
for i in vm_folders:
    children=(i["children"])
    for ii in children:
        # print(ii["name"])
        if (ii["name"]) == "Pod1":
            vm_folder = i

datastore_list = []
datastores = external.get_datastores(vcenter_id=vcid, host_or_cluster_id=host_or_cluster["id"])
for i in datastores:
    # print(i)
    if (i["name"] == "VDI-500") or i["name"] == "VDI-200":
        ds = {}
        ds["datastore_id"] = i["id"]
        datastore_list.append(ds)

local_access_group = next(item for item in (config.get_local_access_groups()) if item["name"] == "Root")
ic_domain_account = next(item for item in (config.get_ic_domain_accounts()) if item["username"] == "administrator")

data["access_group_id"] = local_access_group["id"]
data["automated_farm_settings"]["customization_settings"]["ad_container_rdn"] = "OU=Pod1,OU=RDS,OU=VMware,OU=EUC"
data["automated_farm_settings"]["customization_settings"]["reuse_pre_existing_accounts"] = True
data["automated_farm_settings"]["customization_settings"]["instant_clone_domain_account_id"] = ic_domain_account["id"]
data["automated_farm_settings"]["enable_provisioning"] = False
data["automated_farm_settings"]["max_sessions"] = 50
data["automated_farm_settings"]["min_ready_vms"] = 3
data["automated_farm_settings"]["pattern_naming_settings"]["max_number_of_rds_servers"] = 4
data["automated_farm_settings"]["pattern_naming_settings"]["naming_pattern"] = "farmdemo-{n:fixed=3}"
data["automated_farm_settings"]["provisioning_settings"]["base_snapshot_id"] = snapid
data["automated_farm_settings"]["provisioning_settings"]["parent_vm_id"] = basevmid
data["automated_farm_settings"]["provisioning_settings"]["host_or_cluster_id"] = host_or_cluster["id"]
data["automated_farm_settings"]["provisioning_settings"]["resource_pool_id"] = resource_pool["id"]
data["automated_farm_settings"]["provisioning_settings"]["vm_folder_id"] = vm_folder["id"]
data["automated_farm_settings"]["provisioning_settings"]["datacenter_id"] = dcid
data["automated_farm_settings"]["stop_provisioning_on_error"] = True
data["automated_farm_settings"]["storage_settings"]["datastores"] = datastore_list
data["automated_farm_settings"]["transparent_page_sharing_scope"] = "GLOBAL"
data["automated_farm_settings"]["vcenter_id"] = vcid
data["description"] = "Python_demo_farm"
data["display_name"] = "Python_demo_farm"
data["display_protocol_settings"]["allow_users_to_choose_protocol"] = True
data["display_protocol_settings"]["default_display_protocol"] = "BLAST"
data["display_protocol_settings"]["session_collaboration_enabled"] = True
data["enabled"] = False
data["load_balancer_settings"]["cpu_threshold"] = 12
data["load_balancer_settings"]["disk_queue_length_threshold"] = 16
data["load_balancer_settings"]["disk_read_latency_threshold"] = 12
data["load_balancer_settings"]["disk_write_latency_threshold"] = 16
data["load_balancer_settings"]["include_session_count"] = True
data["load_balancer_settings"]["memory_threshold"] = 12
data["name"] = "Python_demo_farm"
data["session_settings"]["disconnected_session_timeout_minutes"] = 5
data["session_settings"]["disconnected_session_timeout_policy"] = "NEVER"
data["session_settings"]["empty_session_timeout_minutes"] = 6
data["session_settings"]["empty_session_timeout_policy"] = "AFTER"
data["session_settings"]["logoff_after_timeout"] = False
data["session_settings"]["pre_launch_session_timeout_minutes"] = 12
data["session_settings"]["pre_launch_session_timeout_policy"] = "AFTER"
data["type"] = "AUTOMATED"

inventory.new_farm(farm_data=data)

end=hvconnectionobj.hv_disconnect()
print(end)

How does this look? Actually you don’t see a lot happening but the farm will have been created

As always the script can be found on my github in the examples folder together with the json file.

With this I am closing my 100DaysOfCode challenge but I pledge to keep maintaining the python module and I will extend it when new REST api calls arrive for VMware Horizon.