Powercli script to (forcefully) log off Horizon users

A long time ago in a galaxy far far away I wrote this blog post to log a user off from their vdi session. Today I got an inquiry from Robin Stolpe that he was trying to make it a script with arguments instead if the menu’s but was having some issues with that. This gave me the chance to make it a bit nicer of a script with the option to user username/domain/password as credentials but also a credentialfile , optional forcefully logging off the users and with Robin’s requirements of being able to provide the exact username and the machine that user is working on.

The script can be ran like this:

D:\GIT\Scripts\logoff_user.ps1 -Credentialfile "D:\homelab\creds.xml" -TargetUser "loft.lab\m_wouter" -TargetMachine "lp-001.loft.lab" -ConnectionServerFQDN loftcbr01.loft.lab

or with credentials and the -force parameter

D:\GIT\Scripts\logoff_user.ps1 -TargetUser "loft.lab\m_wouter" -TargetMachine "lp-001.loft.lab" -ConnectionServerFQDN loftcbr01.loft.lab -Username m_wouter -domain loft.lab -password "HAHAHAHA" -force

Now let’s have a look how the script is build.

So I started with the parameters and for that I included 2 parameter sets so you can either choose to have the separate credentials or to use a credentials file.

[CmdletBinding()]
Param
(
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$False,
    ParameterSetName="separatecredentials",
    HelpMessage='Enter a username' )]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $Username,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
    ParameterSetName="separatecredentials",
    HelpMessage='Domain i.e. loft.lab' )]
    [string] $Domain,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
    ParameterSetName="separatecredentials",
    HelpMessage='Password in plain text' )]
    [string] $Password,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,  HelpMessage='FQDN of the connectionserver' )]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $ConnectionServerFQDN,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
    ParameterSetName="credsfile",
    HelpMessage='Path to credentials xml file' )]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $Credentialfile,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false, HelpMessage='Synchronise the local site only' )]
    [switch] $Force,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,  HelpMessage='username of the user to logoff (domain\user i.e. loft.lab\user1')]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $TargetUser,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false, HelpMessage='dns name of the machine the user is on i.d. lp-002.loft.lab')]
  [string] $TargetMachine
)

Than I check if a credential file was supplied and if I can actually import it

if($Credentialfile -and ((test-path $Credentialfile) -eq $true)){
    try{
        write-host "Using credentialsfile"
        $credentials=Import-Clixml $Credentialfile
        $username=($credentials.username).split("\")[1]
        $domain=($credentials.username).split("\")[0]
        $secpw=$credentials.password
        $BSTR = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SecureStringToBSTR($secpw)
        $password = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAuto($BSTR)
    }
    catch{
        write-error -Message "Error importing credentials"
        break
    }
}
elseif($Credentials -and ((test-path $credentials) -eq $false)){
    write-error "Invalid Path to credentials file"
}
elseif($username -and $Domain -and $Password){
    write-host "Using separate credentials"
}

The file doesn’t exist:

Or an error importing the xml (duh, what do you think what happoens when you use a json instead of xml, fool!)

Then it’s a matter of logging in, performing a query and checking if there’s really a session for this user. As you can see I am using machineOrRDSServerDNS so it should also work for RDS sessions.

$hvserver1=connect-hvserver $ConnectionServerFQDN -user $username -domain $domain -password $password
$Services1= $hvServer1.ExtensionData

$queryService = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryServiceService
$sessionfilterspec = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryDefinition
$sessionfilterspec.queryEntityType = 'SessionLocalSummaryView'
$sessionfilter1= New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryFilterEquals
$sessionfilter1.membername='namesData.userName'
$sessionfilter1.value=$TargetUser
$sessionfilter2= New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryFilterEquals
$sessionfilter2.membername='namesData.machineOrRDSServerDNS'
$sessionfilter2.value=$TargetMachine
$sessionfilter=new-object vmware.hv.QueryFilterAnd
$sessionfilter.filters=@($sessionfilter1, $sessionfilter2)
$sessionfilterspec.filter=$sessionfilter
$session=($queryService.QueryService_Create($Services1, $sessionfilterspec)).results
$queryService.QueryService_DeleteAll($services1)
if($session.count -eq 0){
    write-host "No session found for $targetuser on $targetmachine"
    break
}

And last but not least logging the user of with or without the -force option

if($Force){
    write-host "Forcefully logging off $targetUser from $targetmachine"
    $Services1.Session.Session_Logoffforced($session.id)
}
else{
    write-host "Logging off $targetUser from $targetmachine"
    try{
        $Services1.Session.Session_Logoff($session.id)
    }
    catch{
        write-error "error logging the user off, maybe the sessions was locked. Try with -force"
    }
}

This session was locked

So let’s force that thing

And here’s the entire script but you can also find it on my github.

[CmdletBinding()]
Param
(
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$False,
    ParameterSetName="separatecredentials",
    HelpMessage='Enter a username' )]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $Username,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
    ParameterSetName="separatecredentials",
    HelpMessage='Domain i.e. loft.lab' )]
    [string] $Domain,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
    ParameterSetName="separatecredentials",
    HelpMessage='Password in plain text' )]
    [string] $Password,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,  HelpMessage='FQDN of the connectionserver' )]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $ConnectionServerFQDN,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,
    ParameterSetName="credsfile",
    HelpMessage='Path to credentials xml file' )]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $Credentialfile,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false, HelpMessage='Synchronise the local site only' )]
    [switch] $Force,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false,  HelpMessage='username of the user to logoff (domain\user i.e. loft.lab\user1')]
    [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
    [string] $TargetUser,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$false, HelpMessage='dns name of the machine the user is on i.d. lp-002.loft.lab')]
  [string] $TargetMachine
)

if($Credentialfile -and ((test-path $Credentialfile) -eq $true)){
    try{
        write-host "Using credentialsfile"
        $credentials=Import-Clixml $Credentialfile
        $username=($credentials.username).split("\")[1]
        $domain=($credentials.username).split("\")[0]
        $secpw=$credentials.password
        $BSTR = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SecureStringToBSTR($secpw)
        $password = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAuto($BSTR)
    }
    catch{
        write-error -Message "Error importing credentials"
        break
    }
}
elseif($Credentials -and ((test-path $credentials) -eq $false)){
    write-error "Invalid Path to credentials file"
    break
}
elseif($username -and $Domain -and $Password){
    write-host "Using separate credentials"
}


$hvserver1=connect-hvserver $ConnectionServerFQDN -user $username -domain $domain -password $password
$Services1= $hvServer1.ExtensionData

$queryService = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryServiceService
$sessionfilterspec = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryDefinition
$sessionfilterspec.queryEntityType = 'SessionLocalSummaryView'
$sessionfilter1= New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryFilterEquals
$sessionfilter1.membername='namesData.userName'
$sessionfilter1.value=$TargetUser
$sessionfilter2= New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryFilterEquals
$sessionfilter2.membername='namesData.machineOrRDSServerDNS'
$sessionfilter2.value=$TargetMachine
$sessionfilter=new-object vmware.hv.QueryFilterAnd
$sessionfilter.filters=@($sessionfilter1, $sessionfilter2)
$sessionfilterspec.filter=$sessionfilter
$session=($queryService.QueryService_Create($Services1, $sessionfilterspec)).results
$queryService.QueryService_DeleteAll($services1)
if($session.count -eq 0){
    write-host "No session found for $targetuser on $targetmachine"
    break
}

if($Force){
    write-host "Forcefully logging off $targetUser from $targetmachine"
    $Services1.Session.Session_Logoffforced($session.id)
}
else{
    write-host "Logging off $targetUser from $targetmachine"
    try{
        $Services1.Session.Session_Logoff($session.id)
    }
    catch{
        write-error "error logging the user off, maybe the sessions was locked. Try with -force"
    }
}

Pushing a new image using the VMware Horizon Python Module

One of the REST api calls that where added for Horizon 8 2012 was the ability to push images to Desktop Pools (sadly not for farms yet). This week I added that functionality to the VMware Horizon Python Module. Looking at the swagger UI these are the needed arguments:

So the source can be either the streams from Horizon Cloud or a regular vm/snapshot combo. For the time you will need to use some moment in epoch. The optional items for adding the virtual tpm, stop on error I have set the default for what they are listed. As logoff policy I have chosen to set a default in WAIT_FOR_LOGOFF.

For this blog posts I have to go with the vm/snapshot combo as I don’t have streams setup at the moment. First I need to connect:

import requests, getpass, urllib, json, operator, numpy, time
import vmware_horizon


requests.packages.urllib3.disable_warnings()
url="https://pod2cbr1.loft.lab"
username = input("Username\n")
domain = input("Domain\n")
pw = getpass.getpass()

hvconnectionobj = vmware_horizon.Connection(username = username,domain = domain,password = pw,url = url)
hvconnectionobj.hv_connect()
print("connected")

Than I open the ports for the classes I will be using

monitor = obj=vmware_horizon.Monitor(url=hvconnectionobj.url, access_token=hvconnectionobj.access_token)
external=vmware_horizon.External(url=hvconnectionobj.url, access_token=hvconnectionobj.access_token)
inventory=vmware_horizon.Inventory(url=hvconnectionobj.url, access_token=hvconnectionobj.access_token)

Now let’s look at what the desktop_pool_push_image method needs

First I will grab the correct desktop pool, I will use Pod02-Pool02 this time. There are several ways to get the correct pool but I have chosen to use this one.

desktop_pools=inventory.get_desktop_pools()
desktop_pool = next(item for item in desktop_pools if item["name"] == "Pod02-Pool02")
poolid=desktop_pool["id"]

To get the VM and Snapshots I first need to get the vCenter and datacenter id’s

vcenters = monitor.virtual_centers()
vcid = vcenters[0]["id"]
dcs = external.get_datacenters(vcenter_id=vcid)
dcid = dcs[0]["id"]

I created a new golden image last Friday and it has this name: W10-L-2021-03-19-17-27 so I need to get the compatible base vm’s and get the id for this one

base_vms = external.get_base_vms(vcenter_id=vcid,datacenter_id=dcid,filter_incompatible_vms=True)
base_vm = next(item for item in base_vms if item["name"] == "W10-L-2021-03-19-17-27")
basevmid=base_vm["id"]

I had Packer create a snapshot and I can get that in a similar way

base_snapshots = external.get_base_snapshots(vcenter_id=vcid, base_vm_id=base_vm["id"])
base_snapshot = next(item for item in base_snapshots if item["name"] == "Created by Packer")
snapid=base_snapshot["id"]

I get the current time in epoch using the time module (google is your best friend to define a moment in the future in epoch)

current_time = time.time()

For this example I add all the arguments but if you don’t change fromt he defaults that’s not needed

inventory.desktop_pool_push_image(desktop_pool_id=poolid,parent_vm_id=basevmid,snapshot_id=snapid, start_time=current_time, add_virtual_tpm=False, stop_on_first_error=False, logoff_policy="FORCE_LOGOFF")

And closing the connection

end=hvconnectionobj.hv_disconnect()
print(end)

and when I now look at my desktop pool it’s pushing the new image

I have created a new folder on Github for examples and the script to deploy new images is the first example. I did move a couple of the names to variables so make ie better usable. You can find it here. Or see the code below this.

import requests, getpass, urllib, time
import vmware_horizon

requests.packages.urllib3.disable_warnings()

url                     = "https://pod2cbr1.loft.lab"
desktop_pool_name       = "Pod02-Pool01"
base_vm_name            = "W10-L-2021-03-19-17-27"
snapshot_name           = "Snap_2"

username = input("Username\n")
domain = input("Domain\n")
pw = getpass.getpass()

hvconnectionobj = vmware_horizon.Connection(username = username,domain = domain,password = pw,url = url)
hvconnectionobj.hv_connect()
print("connected")
monitor = obj=vmware_horizon.Monitor(url=hvconnectionobj.url, access_token=hvconnectionobj.access_token)
external=vmware_horizon.External(url=hvconnectionobj.url, access_token=hvconnectionobj.access_token)
inventory=vmware_horizon.Inventory(url=hvconnectionobj.url, access_token=hvconnectionobj.access_token)

desktop_pools=inventory.get_desktop_pools()
desktop_pool = next(item for item in desktop_pools if item["name"] == desktop_pool_name)
poolid=desktop_pool["id"]

vcenters = monitor.virtual_centers()
vcid = vcenters[0]["id"]
dcs = external.get_datacenters(vcenter_id=vcid)
dcid = dcs[0]["id"]

base_vms = external.get_base_vms(vcenter_id=vcid,datacenter_id=dcid,filter_incompatible_vms=True)
base_vm = next(item for item in base_vms if item["name"] == base_vm_name)
basevmid=base_vm["id"]

base_snapshots = external.get_base_snapshots(vcenter_id=vcid, base_vm_id=base_vm["id"])
base_snapshot = next(item for item in base_snapshots if item["name"] == snapshot_name)
snapid=base_snapshot["id"]

current_time = time.time()
inventory.desktop_pool_push_image(desktop_pool_id=poolid,parent_vm_id=basevmid,snapshot_id=snapid, start_time=current_time)

end=hvconnectionobj.hv_disconnect()
print(end)











 

 

Quickly grabbing all available REST api url’s for your Horizon version

One of the challenges with the Horizon REST API’s is that they are not feature complete yet and if you ain’t on the latest version you need to scroll trough the api explorer or Swagger UI to find if the URL you need is available. I have created a short script for both python and powershell that will show all the available urls.

If you’ve taken a good look at the Swagger page you’ll see there’s a link to the api docs almost at the top

If you open this you get something that looks like a json but it’s not readable (yet!)

Let’s grab the url’s with powershell first

$data = Invoke-WebRequest https://pod2cbr1.loft.lab/rest/v1/api-docs?group=Default
$json = $data |ConvertFrom-Json
$json.paths

this will give you all the available url’s from the docs and the methods they support

Now if you want to drill down deeper you can do a select -expandproperty on the url’s and with a get-member you get the available calls

$json.paths | select -expandproperty "/inventory/v1/rds-servers/{id}" | Get-Member

and with another select -expandproperty you see all the details

$json.paths | select -expandproperty "/inventory/v1/rds-servers/{id}" | select -ExpandProperty get

With Python you can start with something similar

import json,requests,urllib 
requests.packages.urllib3.disable_warnings() 
response = requests.get("https://pod2cbr1.loft.lab/rest/v1/api-docs?group=Default" , verify=False) 
data = response.json() 
for i in data["paths"]: 
    print(i)

but this will just give the url’s

To be able to drill down I decided to bring the url, method and the description into a list and print that if needed. This example is just with the method and url but you can add the description as well. The list is to make it easier to filter on.

import json,requests,urllib
requests.packages.urllib3.disable_warnings()
response = requests.get("https://pod2cbr1.loft.lab/rest/v1/api-docs?group=Default" , verify=False)

data = response.json()

list=[]
paths=data["paths"]

for i in paths:
    for method in paths[i]:
        obj = {}
        obj["method"] = method
        obj["url"] = i
        obj["description"] = paths[i][method]
        list.append(obj)

for i in list:
    print(i["method"], i["url"])

The VMware Labs flings monthly for February 2021 – Reach alert!

It’s been a busy month on the flings front, no less than 17(!!) new releases and updated flings. This is how my browser tabs look:

If I have therm all correct there are 6 new releases and 10 updates (2 1 of which update without a changelog so a boo for that!) so this post is going to be a long one!

New Releases

Community NVMe Driver for ESXi

VMware Cloud Foundation Powernova

Workspace ONE Access Migration Tool

Sample Data Platform Deployment on Virtualized Cloud Infrastructure

Community Networking Driver for ESXi

Code Stream Concourse Integrator

Updates

ESXi Compatibility Checker

VMware Machine Learning Platform

Virtualized High Performance Computing Toolkit

Horizon Peripherals Intelligence

Workspace ONE App Analyzer for macOS

VMware OS Optimization Tool

Horizon Helpdesk Utility

HCIBench

Horizon Reach

Workspace ONE Discovery

App Volumes Migration Utility

New Releases

Community NVMe Driver for ESXi

This Fling is a collection of ESXi Native Drivers which enables ESXi to recognize and consume various NVMe-based storage devices. These devices are not officially on the VMware HCL and have been developed to enable and support the VMware Community.

Currently, this Fling provides an emulated NVMe driver for the Apple 2018 Intel Mac Mini 8,1 and the Apple 2019 Intel Mac Pro 7,1 allowing customers to use the local NVMe SSD with ESXi. This driver is packaged up as an Offline Bundle and is only activated when it detects ESXi has been installed on either an Apple Mac Mini or Apple Mac Pro.

VMware Cloud Foundation Powernova

VMware Cloud Foundation Powernova is a Fling built on top of VCF that provides the users the ability to perform Power Operations (Power ON, Power OFF) seamlessly across the entire inventory. It has a sleek UI to visualize the entire VCF inventory (which is the first of its kind for VCF) across the domains of VCF.

The UI is easy to use and elucidates the current Health and Power State of each node in the VCF inventory. Powernova lets the user work on the Power Operations on the components with domain specific inter dependencies automatically resolved.

Powernova also performs valid health checks on all nodes in the VCF inventory to ensure Power Operations are performed only on healthy nodes. Powernova takes minimal input (4 user defined inputs on their VCF system) and does all the magic for the users behind the scenes.

If any infrastructure maintenance activity, VCF migration activity, or power operations need to be performed only on specific domains in VCF, then Powernova is the one stop solution for all VCF users.

Workspace ONE Access Migration Tool

Workspace ONE Access Migration Tool helps ease migration of Apps from one WS1 Access tenant to another (on-premises to SaaS or SaaS to SaaS) and use cases that require mirroring one tenant to another (for setting up UAT from PROD or vice versa) by providing capabilities listed below

Features
  • Copying of App Categories
  • Migrating Weblinks (3rd party IDP), icons as is
  • Creating a link to federated apps and copying the icons (to maintain the same user experience)
  • Copying App Assignment to a Category mapping

Sample Data Platform Deployment on Virtualized Cloud Infrastructure

Data is king and your users need a sample data platform quickly.

With this Fling, you will leverage your VMware Cloud Foundation 4.0 with vRealize Automation deployment and stand a sample data platform based on vSphere Virtual Machines in less than 20-minutes comprising of Kafka, Spark, Solr, and ELK.

You can also choose whether to deploy a wavefront proxy and configure the components to send data to the wavefront proxy or use your own.

Community Networking Driver for ESXi

This Fling is a collection of ESXi Native Drivers which enables ESXi to recognize and consume various PCIe-based network adapters (See Requirements for details). These devices are not officially on the VMware HCL and have been developed to enable and support the VMware Community.

Code Stream Concourse Integrator

The Code Stream Concourse Integrator (CSCI) Fling provides integration between a vRealize Automation Code Stream and Concourse CI tools with which users can trigger Concourse CI pipelines from Code Stream pipelines without any additional tooling/scripting. This enables users to use the features from both the tools flexibly and seamlessly as per their needs. This solution is built using Code Stream’s extensibility feature named Custom Integration.

Updates

ESXi Compatibility Checker

The ESXi Compatibility Checker helps the vSphere admin out in checking if their environment will work with later versions of ESXi. [non-sponsored advertisement]Also check Runecast, they can run a simulation for you as well.[/non-sponsored advertisement]

Changelog

Build 20210219

  • Fix for ESX / VC 7.0 U1 Versioning issues
  • A new logo 😉

VMware Machine Learning Platform

Our goal is to provide an end-to-end ML platform for Data Scientists to perform their job more effectively by running ML workloads on top of VMware infrastructure.

Using vMLP allows to:

Save the costs by enabling efficient use of shared GPUs for ML workfloads
Reduce the risks of broken Data Science workflows by leveraging well-tested and ready-to-use demos and project templates
Faster “go-to-market” for ML models by utilizing end-to-end oriented tooling including fast and easy model deployment and serving via standardized REST API

Changelog

Version 0.4.1

  • Jupyter: R Kernel
  • Jupyter: BitFusion 2.5.0 Demo
  • Jupyter: MADlib/RTS4MADlib on Greenplum Demo
  • Multiple bug fixes

Virtualized High Performance Computing Toolkit

This toolkit is intended to facilitate managing the lifecycle of these special configurations by leveraging vSphere APIs. It also includes features that help vSphere administrators perform some common vSphere tasks that are related to creating such high-performing environments, such as VM cloning, setting Latency Sensitivity, and sizing vCPUs, memory, etc.

Changelog

Nope 🙁

Horizon Peripherals Intelligence

Horizon Peripherals Intelligence is an online self-serviced diagnosis service that can help increase the satisfaction when using peripheral devices with Horizon product by both the end users and the admin user. Currently, we support diagnosis for the following device categories – USB storage devices, USB printers, USB scanners, Cameras. We will continue to cover more device categories in the future

Changelog

Version 1.0

  • Add support for USB Audios, Speechmics, Signaturepads, Barcode scanners
  • Add support for L10n of web pages in simplified Chinese, traditional Chinese and English
  • Add support for window 7 and windows 2012R2
  • Add support for 32 bits OS
  • Add support for cmdline installation

Workspace ONE App Analyzer for macOS

The Workspace ONE macOS App Analyzer will determine any Privacy Permissions, Kernel Extensions, or System Extensions needed by an installed macOS application, and can be used to automatically create profiles in Workspace ONE UEM to whitelist those same settings when deploying apps to managed devices.

Changelog

Version 1.2 

  • Added support for Big Sur
  • Updated icon

VMware OS Optimization Tool

Image optimize you must with osot!

Changelog

  • nope 🙁

Update: OSOT didn’t receive an update, someone only edited the page according to Hilko.

Horizon Helpdesk Utility

Besides ControlUp the helpdesk fling  is the best tool to help your users.

Changelog

Version 1.5.0.24

  • Added support for Horizon 8.1

HCIBench

HCIBench stands for “Hyper-converged Infrastructure Benchmark”. It’s essentially an automation wrapper around the popular and proven open source benchmark tools: Vdbench and Fio that make it easier to automate testing across a HCI cluster. HCIBench aims to simplify and accelerate customer POC performance testing in a consistent and controlled way. The tool fully automates the end-to-end process of deploying test VMs, coordinating workload runs, aggregating test results, performance analysis and collecting necessary data for troubleshooting purposes.

Changelog

Version 2.5.3

  • Fixed graphite permission issue which blocked vdbench/fio grafana display
  • Updated drop cache script to make it compatible with upcoming vSphere
  • md5sum: 622625cc7a551bd7bf07ff4f19a57a17 HCIBench_2.5.3.ova

Horizon Reach

Again if you’re not a ControlUp customer Reach is the next best thing to manage you’re Horizon environment.

Changelog

Version 1.3.1.2

  • Added support for Horizon 8.1
  • Bugfixes

Workspace ONE Discovery

VMware Workspace ONE UEM is used to manage Windows 10 endpoints, whether it be Certificate Management, Application Deployment or Profile Management. The Discovery Fling enables you to view these from the device point of view and review the Workspace ONE related services, which applications have been successfully deployed, use the granular view to see exactly what has been configured with Profiles, view User & Machine certificates and see which Microsoft Windows Updates have been applied.

Changelog

February, 16, 2021 – Version 1.2

  • Replaced icon
  • New logo 🙂

App Volumes Migration Utility

App Volumes Migration Utility allows admins to migrate AppStacks managed by VMware App Volumes 2.18, to the new application package format of App Volumes 4. The format of these packages in App Volumes 4 have evolved to improve performance and help simplify application management.

Changelog

Version 1.0.7 Update

  • Migration fails if their are blacklisted registry entries containing embedded NULL chars.
  • File system migration fails if their are directories having a trailing DOT name ( ex- Microsoft. ).

Filtering/Searching and pagination with the Python module for VMware Horizon

Yesterday I added the first method to the VMware Horizon Python module that makes use of filtering while the day before that I added pagination. VMware{Code} has a document describing available options for both but let me give some explanation.

Pagination

Pagination is where you perform a query but only get an x amount of objects returned by default. The rest of the objects are available on the next page or pages. This is exactly what I ran into with the vmware.hv.helper Powershell module a long time ago. With the REST api’s this is rather easy to add since if there are more pages/objects left the headers will contain a key named HAS_MORE_RECORDS. For all the methods that I add where pagination is supported you don’t need to handle this though as I have added it to the method itself. What I did add was the option the change the maximum page size. I default to 100 and the maximum is 1000, if you supply an interrupt higher than 1000 this will be corrected to 1000.

Filtering

Filtering needs some more work from the user of the module to be able to use it.

What options are there for filtering?

For the type we have: And, Or and Not

For the filters themselves there are: Equals, NotEquals, Contains, StartsWith and Between.

The formula is you pick one from the first row and combine that with one or more from the second row.

To apply these the document describes the base schema like this:

{
    “type”: ”And”,
    “filter”: <filter object>
}

and a filter object looks like this:

{
    "type":"Equals",
    "name":"domain",
    "value":"ad-example0"
}

or this for a range:

{
    "type":"Between",
    "name":"assignedUsers",
    "fromValue":"10",
    "toValue":"20"
}

Combining both into a single object looks like this:

{
    "type":"Not",
    "filter": {
        "type":"Equals",
        "name":"domain",
        "value":"ad-example0"
    }
}

This all looks like a dictionary with a nested dictionary when translating it to Python but when you have multiple filters it suddenly looks like this:

{
    "type":"And",
  "filters": [
        {
            "type":"Equals", 
            "name":"domain",
            "value":"ad-example0"
        },
        {
            "type":"StartsWith", 
            "name":"name",
            "value":"test"
        }
    ]
}

otherwise know as a dictionary with a list of dictionaries in it and since the latter also works with a single dict inside the list I have taken that route. The document also describes encoding and minifying the code to it works for a REST api call but I have done all of that for you so no need to worry about it, just build the dictionary and you are good!

Now let’s actually perform a search

First I create my base object with the type AND and a list for the filters key

filter_dict = {}
filter_dict["type"] = "And"
filter_dict["filters"] = []

Next I create the filters object where the type is contains and I filter on the field name with the value LP-00

filter1={}
filter1["type"] = "Contains"
filter1["name"] = "name"
filter1["value"] = "LP-00"

And now I add the filters1 object to the filter_dict filters list

filter["filters"].append(filter1)

and I get the machines with a pagesize of 1 to show the pagination (the pool with these machines only has 2 😉 )

machines = obj.get_machines(maxpagesize=1, filter = filter_dict)

And this would be the entire python script

import requests, getpass, urllib, json
import vmware_horizon

requests.packages.urllib3.disable_warnings()

url="https://loftcbr01.loft.lab"
username = "m_wouter"
domain = "loft.lab"
pw = getpass.getpass()

hvconnectionobj = vmware_horizon.Connection(username = username,domain = domain,password = pw,url = url)
hvconnectionobj.hv_connect()

obj = vmware_horizon.Inventory(url=hvconnectionobj.url, access_token=hvconnectionobj.access_token)

filter_dict = {}
filter_dict["type"] = "And"
filter_dict["filters"] = []
filter1={}
filter1["type"] = "Contains"
filter1["name"] = "name"
filter1["value"] = "LP-00"

filter["filters"].append(filter1)

machines = obj.get_machines(maxpagesize=1, filter = filter_dict)

for i in machines:
    print(i["name"])

hvconnectionobj.hv_disconnect()

And it shows this in python:

Updates to the VMware Horizon Python Module

I have just pushed some changes to the Horizon Python module. With these changes I am more complying with the Python coding standards by initiating an object before being able to use the functions inside a class. Also I added a bunch of the api calls available in the monitor parts.

To connect you now start like this:

import requests, getpass
import vmware_horizon

requests.packages.urllib3.disable_warnings()
url = input("URL\n")
username = input("Username\n")
domain = input("Domain\n")
pw = getpass.getpass()

hvconnectionobj = vmware_horizon.Connection(username = username,domain = domain,password = pw,url = url)
hvconnectionobj.hv_connect()

so technically you first initiate a Connection class object and than you use the hv_connect function inside that class after which the access token is stored inside the object itself.

Now to use the monitors for example you create an object for this.

monitor = vmware_horizon.Monitor(url=hvconnectionobj.url, access_token=hvconnectionobj.access_token)

To see what functions are available you can combine print with dir.

print(dir(monitor))

and the full list, the ones with (id) require an id:

  • ad_domain
  • connection_servers
  • connection_server(id)
  • event_database
  • farms
  • farm(id)
  • gateways
  • gateway(id)
  • rds_servers
  • rds_server(id)
  • saml_authenticators
  • saml_authenticator(id)
  • view_composers
  • view_composer(vcId)
  • virtual_centers
  • virtual_center(id)
  • remote_pods
  • remote_pod(id)
  • true_sso

As you can see I had to work with underscores instead of hyphens as python doesn’t like those in the names of functions

As said some of these might require an id but connection_servers works without one for example
print(monitor.connection_servers())

Todo: Error handling for wrong passwords, documentation

Using the Horizon REST API’s with Python

As you probably have seen from my tweets the last three weeks I have been doing the 100DaysOfCode challenge specifically for Python. Today I was actually a bit bored with the task we got (sorry, I hate creating games) so I decided on checking if I was actually able to consume the Horizon api’s from Python. This was something entirely new for me so it was a boatload of trial & error until I got it working with this script:

import requests,json, getpass

requests.packages.urllib3.disable_warnings()

pw = getpass.getpass()
domain = input("Domain")
username = input("Username")
url = input("URL")



headers = {
    'accept': '*/*',
    'Content-Type': 'application/json',
}

data = {"domain": domain, "password": pw, "username": username}
json_data = json.dumps(data)

response = requests.post(f'{url}/rest/login', verify=False, headers=headers, data=json_data)
data = response.json()

access_token = {
    'accept': '*/*',
    'Authorization': 'Bearer ' + data['access_token']
}

response = requests.get(f'{url}/rest/inventory/v1/desktop-pools', verify=False,  headers=access_token)
data = response.json()
for i in data:
    print(i['name'])

First I import the requests json and getpass modules. The requests module does the webrequests, the json is used to transform the data to be usable and getpass is used to get my password without showing it. After this I add a line to get rid of the warnings that my certificates aren’t to be trusted (it’s a homelab, duh!).

The most important part is that for the authentication I send username,password and domain as json data in the data while the headers contain the content type. The response gets converted to json data and I use that json data to build the access token. For future requests I only need to pass the access token for authentication.

Now this looks fun but wouldn’t it be better if I create a module for it? Yes it does and that’s what I have done and I have even added a simple function to list desktop pools.

import json, requests, ssl

class Connection:
    def hv_connect(username, password, domain, url):
        headers = {
            'accept': '*/*',
            'Content-Type': 'application/json',
        }

        data = {"domain": domain, "password": password, "username": username}
        json_data = json.dumps(data)

        response = requests.post(f'{url}/rest/login', verify=False, headers=headers, data=json_data)
        data = response.json()

        access_token = {
            'accept': '*/*',
            'Authorization': 'Bearer ' + data['access_token']
        }
        return access_token

    def hv_disconnect(url, access_token):
        requests.post(f'{url}/rest/logout', verify=False, headers=access_token)

class Pools:
    def list_hvpools(url,access_token):
        response = requests.get(f'{url}/rest/inventory/v1/desktop-pools', verify=False,  headers=access_token)
        return response.json()



And with a simple script I consume this module to show the display name of the first pool.

import requests, getpass
import vmware_horizon

requests.packages.urllib3.disable_warnings()
url = input("URL\n")
username = input("Username\n")
domain = input("Domain\n")
pw = getpass.getpass()


at = vmware_horizon.Connection.hv_connect(username=username,password=pw,url=url,domain=domain)


pools = vmware_horizon.Pools.list_hvpools(url=url, access_token=at)
print(f'The first Desktop pool is {pools[0]["display_name"]}')

vmware_horizon.Connection.hv_disconnect(url=url, access_token=at)

The module is from from ready and I need to find a better way to make it optional to ignore the certificate erros but if you want to follow the progress of the module it can be found on my Github.

 

 

[HorizonAPI] Getting started with the Horizon REST api

Until now all of my blogging about the Horizon api’s was about consuming the SOAP api using PowerCLI. Since a couple of releases Horizon also has a REST api and since 7.12 we are also able to change some settings using that. So now it’s time for me to dive into the Horizon REST api’s. I will consume them using Powershell since I am the most comfortable using that but you can use whatever method you prefer..

The REST api is just like the soap api documented at the VMware{CODE} api explorer.

First of all we need to create an accesstoken, we can do this by using some code that I simply stole from Andrew Morgan because why would I re-invent the wheel? From his git repository I grabbed three basic functions: get-HRHeader, Open-HRConnection and close-hrconnection. there’s also a refresh-hrconnection but I won’t need that for now.

function Get-HRHeader(){
    param($accessToken)
    return @{
        'Authorization' = 'Bearer ' + $($accessToken.access_token)
        'Content-Type' = "application/json"
    }
}

function Open-HRConnection(){
    param(
        [string] $username,
        [string] $password,
        [string] $domain,
        [string] $url
    )

    $Credentials = New-Object psobject -Property @{
        username = $username
        password = $password
        domain = $domain
    }

    return invoke-restmethod -Method Post -uri "$url/rest/login" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($Credentials | ConvertTo-Json)
}

function Close-HRConnection(){
    param(
        $accessToken,
        $url
    )
    return Invoke-RestMethod -Method post -uri "$url/rest/logout" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($accessToken | ConvertTo-Json)
}
$accessToken = Open-HRConnection -username $username -password $password -domain $Domain -url $url

But we can’t do anything with only these functions, somehow we also need to supply username and password

$url = read-host -prompt "Connection server url"
$username = read-host -prompt "Username"
$password = read-host -prompt "Password" -AsSecureString
$Domain = read-host -Prompt "Domain"

$BSTR = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SecureStringToBSTR($password)
$UnsecurePassword = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAuto($BSTR)

(I am grabbing it from the command line here but when I run the scripts I have my creds hardcoded to make my life for the duration of this blog post a bit easier)

Next up is actually getting some data. The first thing that I wil do is show the connection servers. This can be done with the following API call. The part after -uri “$url/rest/ is what you can find int he api explorer. The method is the method also shown in the api explorer.

Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$url/rest/monitor/connection-servers" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)

and the result:

Since one of the few things that you can already change using the rest api’s are the general settings I will take those as the next example

Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$url/rest/config/v1/settings" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)

This works but I can’t say that it’s really usable. Now this is not the first time I do something with REST api’s (haven’t done it a lot though to be honest) so I know this can easily be converted to json to make it visible. What I will do is that I put it in a variable first.

$settings=Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$url/rest/config/v1/settings" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)
$settings | ConvertTo-Json

Now this DOES look usable! Let’s take a look what is under general_settings

$settings.general_settings

Let’s say I want to change the forced logoff message

$settings.general_settings.forced_logoff_message="Get lost, the Bastard Operator From Hell is here."

Now my variable has the change but I need to send this to the server. This can be done using a put method and the settings variable has to be added as json. The second line is to pull the new settings from my connection server showing it directly in a json format.

 

Invoke-RestMethod -Method Put -uri "$url/rest/config/v1/settings" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) -body ($settings | ConvertTo-Json)
Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$url/rest/config/v1/settings" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken) | ConvertTo-Json

and in the admin interface:

That’s it for my 1ste blog post about the horizon REST api’s hopefully it’s useful! Below is an example of the script that I used.

$url = read-host -prompt "Connection server url" 
$username = read-host -prompt "Username" 
$password = read-host -prompt "Password" -AsSecureString 
$Domain = read-host -Prompt "Domain" 

#$BSTR = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SecureStringToBSTR($password) 
#$UnsecurePassword = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAuto($BSTR)

function Get-HRHeader(){
    param($accessToken)
    return @{
        'Authorization' = 'Bearer ' + $($accessToken.access_token)
        'Content-Type' = "application/json"
    }
}
function Open-HRConnection(){
    param(
        [string] $username,
        [string] $password,
        [string] $domain,
        [string] $url
    )

    $Credentials = New-Object psobject -Property @{
        username = $username
        password = $password
        domain = $domain
    }

    return invoke-restmethod -Method Post -uri "$url/rest/login" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($Credentials | ConvertTo-Json)
}

function Close-HRConnection(){
    param(
        $accessToken,
        $url
    )
    return Invoke-RestMethod -Method post -uri "$url/rest/logout" -ContentType "application/json" -Body ($accessToken | ConvertTo-Json)
}

$accessToken = Open-HRConnection -username $username -password $password -domain $Domain -url $url

Invoke-RestMethod -Method Get -uri "$url/rest/monitor/connection-servers" -ContentType "application/json" -Headers (Get-HRHeader -accessToken $accessToken)

[HorizonAPI] Creating Entitlements

So last week I created a blog about gathering Horizon entitlements using the api’s. At the end I promised that my next blog post would be about creating entitlements and guess what: that’s this post 🙂

First a short explanation about what UserEntitlements actually are in Horizon. When you pull the entitlement info the base property has the needed information.

So in short an entitlement is a link between the userorgroup object id and a resource object id. The resource object can be: Application, Desktop, Global Application Entitlement, Global Desktop Entitlement and URLRedirection.

Let’s first grab the id’s that we need, I use 2 queries for that bur first I put the names of the group and the desktop in variables:

$groupname = "example_group"
$poolname = "pod01_pool01"

Than I create two objects called $group and $pool using queries.

$queryService = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryServiceService
$defn = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryDefinition
$defn.queryEntityType = 'ADUserOrGroupSummaryView'
$defn.Filter = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryFilterEquals -property @{'memberName'='base.name'; 'value' = "$groupname"}
$group= ($queryService.queryService_create($HVService, $defn)).results
$queryService.QueryService_DeleteAll($HVService)

$queryService = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryServiceService
$defn = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryDefinition
$defn.queryEntityType = 'DesktopSummaryView'
$defn.Filter = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryFilterEquals -property @{'memberName'='desktopSummaryData.displayName'; 'value' = "$Poolname"}
$pool= ($queryService.queryService_create($HVService, $defn)).results
$queryService.QueryService_DeleteAll($HVService)

Next we create the object to link them together.

$userentitlement= new-object VMware.Hv.UserEntitlementBase
$userentitlement.UserOrGroup = $group.id
$userentitlement.Resource = $pool.id

And we create the actual entitlement, since the output we get from this is the id of the entitlement object I store this in a variable to show you the entitlement in the next step.

and to show the entitlement

($hvservice.UserEntitlement.UserEntitlement_Get($newentitlement)).base

If you want to create entitlements for other resource you’ll need to use the either of the following to build your query:

Name Data object property to filter on
Application ApplicationInfo data.displayName
Desktop DesktopSummaryView DesktopSummaryData.displayName
Global Application Entitlement GlobalApplicationEntitlementInfo base.displayName
Global Desktop Entitlement GlobalEntitlementInfo base.displayName

There is no query for the URLRedirection so you’ll need to use URLRedirection.URLRedirection_List() to get the entire list and select the right one from that.

This is a complete example script that you could use to create a desktop entitlement:

Import-Module VMware.VimAutomation.HorizonView
Import-Module VMware.VimAutomation.Core

$cs = 'pod1cbr1.loft.lab'
$groupname = "example_group"
$poolname = "pod01_pool01"

$hvServer = Connect-HVServer -Server $cs 

$HVService= $hvServer1.ExtensionData

$queryService = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryServiceService
$defn = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryDefinition
$defn.queryEntityType = 'ADUserOrGroupSummaryView'
$defn.Filter = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryFilterEquals -property @{'memberName'='base.name'; 'value' = "$groupname"}
$group= ($queryService.queryService_create($HVService, $defn)).results
$queryService.QueryService_DeleteAll($HVService)

$queryService = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryServiceService
$defn = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryDefinition
$defn.queryEntityType = 'DesktopSummaryView'
$defn.Filter = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryFilterEquals -property @{'memberName'='desktopSummaryData.displayName'; 'value' = "$Poolname"}
$pool= ($queryService.queryService_create($HVService, $defn)).results
$queryService.QueryService_DeleteAll($HVService)

$userentitlement= new-object VMware.Hv.UserEntitlementBase
$userentitlement.UserOrGroup = $group.id
$userentitlement.Resource = $pool.id
$hvservice.UserEntitlement.UserEntitlement_Create($userentitlement)

[HorizonAPI] Pulling entitlement information using the api’s

Somehow I have never really blogged about using the Horizon api’s to gather entitlement data. These are actually stored in entitlement objects and we can find them using a query against either the EntitledUserOrGroupLocalSummaryView or EntitledUserOrGroupGlobalSummaryView objects. Let’s start with the local variety.

$queryService = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryServiceService
$defn = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryDefinition
$defn.queryEntityType = 'EntitledUserOrGroupLocalSummaryView'
$queryResults= ($queryService.queryService_create($HVservice, $defn)).results
$queryService.QueryService_DeleteAll($HVservice)
$queryresults

So we have some property’s and the ID is the easiest one to use since it’s of the VMware.Hv.UserOrGroupId type that we can resolve using aduserorgroup.aduserorgroup_GetInfos(arrayofids)

$hvservice.ADUserOrGroup.ADUserOrGroup_GetInfos($queryResults.id)

and the name is visible using base.displayname

($hvservice.ADUserOrGroup.ADUserOrGroup_GetInfos($queryResults.id)).base.displayname

$

Yes that’s me making a typo, try to talk to me on Slack. I hardly type anything without typo’s. Back to the $queryresults because there’s an easier way to get the group or username because it’s listed under the base property.

$queryresults.base

or

So we now have the group or username now we need to find what they have been entitled to, this information is stored under localdata.

$queryresults.localdata

The Applications and Desktops properties contain the ids where the users have rights to so if we use Desktop.Desktop_GetSummaryViews or Application_GetSummaryViews we end up with the relevant data. I have opened the summarydata for both to make things more visible.

($hvservice.Desktop.Desktop_GetSummaryViews($queryResults.localdata.desktops)).desktopsummarydata
($hvservice.Application.Application_GetSummaryViews($queryResults.localdata.applications)).applicationsummarydata

To create a nice overview of this I have created a small script

$queryService = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryServiceService
$defn = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryDefinition
$defn.queryEntityType = 'EntitledUserOrGroupLocalSummaryView'
$queryResults= ($queryService.queryService_create($HVservice, $defn)).results
$queryService.QueryService_DeleteAll($HVservice)
$entitlements=@()
foreach ($queryresult in $queryresults){
    $userorgroupname = $queryresult.base.displayname
    $group = $queryresult.base.group
    $desktops=@()
    if ($queryresult.localdata.desktops){
        foreach ($desktop in $queryresult.localdata.desktops){
            $desktops+=($hvservice.desktop.desktop_get($desktop)).base.name
        }
    }
    $applications=@()
    if ($queryresult.localdata.applications){
        foreach ($application in $queryresult.localdata.applications){
            $applications+=($hvservice.application.application_get($application)).data.name
        }
    }
    $entitlements+=New-Object PSObject -Property @{
        "Name" = $userorgroupname;
        "group" = $group;
        "desktops" = $desktops;
        "applications" = $applications;
    }
}
$entitlements | select-object Name,group,desktops,applications

as you can see user1 is the lucky SoB that I test everything on.

The difference with global entitlements is that the localdata property is replaced bij globaldata.

$queryService = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryServiceService
$defn = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryDefinition
$defn.queryEntityType = 'EntitledUserOrGroupGlobalSummaryView'
$queryResults= ($queryService.queryService_create($HVservice, $defn)).results
$queryService.QueryService_DeleteAll($HVservice)
$queryresults

And the entitlements are named a bit different

$queryresults.globaldata

To rebuild the script for global entitlements it needed a bit of tinkering but here it is

$queryService = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryServiceService
$defn = New-Object VMware.Hv.QueryDefinition
$defn.queryEntityType = 'EntitledUserOrGroupGlobalSummaryView'
$queryResults= ($queryService.queryService_create($HVservice, $defn)).results
$queryService.QueryService_DeleteAll($HVservice)
$entitlements=@()
foreach ($queryresult in $queryresults){
    $userorgroupname = $queryresult.base.displayname
    $group = $queryresult.base.group
    $desktops=@()
    if ($queryresult.globaldata.GlobalEntitlements){
        foreach ($desktop in $queryresult.globaldata.GlobalEntitlements){
            $desktops+=($hvservice.GlobalEntitlement.GlobalEntitlement_Get($desktop)).base.displayname
        }
    }
    $applications=@()
    if ($queryresult.globaldata.GlobalApplicationEntitlements){
        foreach ($application in $queryresult.globaldata.GlobalApplicationEntitlements){
            $applications+=($hvservice.GlobalApplicationEntitlement.GlobalApplicationEntitlement_Get($application)).base.displayname
        }
    }
    $entitlements+=New-Object PSObject -Property @{
        "Name" = $userorgroupname;
        "group" = $group;
        "desktops" = $desktops;
        "applications" = $applications;
    }
}
$entitlements | select-object Name,group,desktops,applications

So here you have the ways to retrieve information about entitlements, locally and globally. Next post will be about creating entitlements.